Ussher’s Time Line for the Divided Kingdom

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Ussher’s Time Line for the Divided Kingdom

The time line for the divided kingdom has caused many problems recently for those who do not take the Bible as their final authority. This article documents this time line and points out the difficulties with it. Archaeology seems to have caused the most grief as well meaning individuals try to harmonise man’s conjectures with the infallible word of God.

This work is based on the Old Testament Scriptures of the Bible. Any translation that accurately translates the current Hebrew texts into English can be used. The LXX is inaccurate in many places and is unsuitable for this. Likewise, any translation that is not based on the Hebrew text but uses the Greek LXX or the Latin Vulgate suffers from the same problems. Many foreign language versions are derived from the LXX, i.e. the Russian Synodal Bible. We used the 1769 English Authorized Version in preparing this work.

We have reconstructed the king lists for the divided kingdom based on the work of James Ussher’s, "The Annals of the World." We have shown all chronological data for the period of the kings as we have gleaned it from Kings, Chronicles, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Daniel. We have not knowingly omitted any passages in those books that contain chronological information. We have also documented all the supposed contradictions people have found in the chronological data and have explained them in location. Most of these disappear with an accurate reconstruction of the king lists. Only twice does there appear to be a scribal error in transmission and even these do not affect the king list chronology. The list of contradictions was taken from John Halley. (p. 396-404)

Ussher did not always state how he arrived at his findings. It was not until we broke the years down into the seasons that we were able to reproduce his findings. His untranslated Latin work called the Sacred Chronology holds the detailed documentation of how Ussher arrived at his results. We plan to translate the relevant portions at some future date.

1.0 Abbreviations

SK-Southern Kingdom
NK-Northern Kingdom
BB-Babylonian Kingdom
YDK-Year From Division of Kingdom
1Ki-1 Kings
2Ki-2 Kings
1Ch-1 Chronicles
2Ch-2 Chronicles
Isa-Isaiah
Jer-Jeremiah
Eze-Ezekiel
Da-Daniel

The year is divided into four parts as follows in the same way Ussher divided up the year.

b-winter
c-spring and approximate start of Jewish New Year
d-summer
a-fall

Jubilee years are marked and will be explained in detail in the article for the time period after the exodus. This article is already rather long.

* - Indicates king who was murdered by his successor or forced to commit suicide to avoid being murdered by his successor. (eg Zimri)

X - Indicates king who was killed but not murdered by his successor

2.0 Terms

The first three terms are used in explaining objections to Ussher’s system and we did not otherwise use them. The three terms came from Dr. McFall.

Accession year -

This was the year a king came to the throne and was not normally considered the first year of his reign.

Accession year system -

This computes the length of a king’s reign based on the number of Jewish New Years that happened during his reign. If a king reigned only a week before and a week after the New Year, he would be said to reign one year because exactly one Jewish New Year occurred in his reign. Both the Talmud and the Mishnah specify this is the normal way to calculate the length of a king’s reign. This system was the normal way kings counted their years of reign. If a king had no Jewish New years in his reign, the length of his reign was normally given in months. The Accession Year System is also called Postdating by some writers.

Non-Accession year system -

The remainder of the previous king’s year is counted as the first year of his successor and also counted as the last year of the previous king. If a king reigned only a week before and a week after the New Year, he would be said to reign two years when using this system. This system was not normally used, so think of it as non-standard. Only when you plot out the actual reigns, can you determine if this system was used. The Non-Accession Year System is also called Antedating by some writers.

Viceregent-

This is like an assistant or co-king. The regular king was still on the throne. The only example of this was Jehoram who was made viceregent sometime in the 16th year of Jehoshaphat. Jehoshaphat was preparing to help Ahab fight with the Syrians and appointed his son as caretaker while he would be away. Jehoram numbered his years of reign from this point until he was made viceroy 6 years later.

Viceroy-

This position is considered to be defacto king. The viceroy’s father was still alive, but the viceroy was running the kingdom. There were two reasons why a king made his son viceroy. First, the father was going to war and wanted to make sure of a smooth transition in case he was killed. Secondly, the father was in ill health and not able to manage the kingdom any more. Most viceroyships were rather short and occurred a year or so before the death of the king. According to the Talmud and the Mishnah {see Virtual Jerusalem website}, the viceroy always counted his first year as king when he became viceroy, not the sole king. Ussher found no exceptions to this rule. Since appointing a viceroy was usually a planned choice, the logical time to do this would be at the start of the Jewish New Year in Nisan.

3.0 Assumptions

  1. The biblical data not archaeological data is the final authority. You cannot use secular dates from archaeologists to overthrow the biblical data. The terminal date for biblical chronology is 562 BC with the release of Jehoiachin and is taken from Ptolemy’s king lists. {Thiele, p. 227} {Jer 52:28} This date was the anchor Ussher used for his chronology before this time. The time from creation to the release of Jehoiachin forms a continuous chronology in the Bible. If you do not agree with this assumption of scriptura sola, you can justify almost any reconstruction of this period.

  2. The king calculated his first year at the month of Nisan (first month of the Jewish New Year in the spring) even though he may have reigned for a few months in the previous year. That is, they all used the Accession Year system. This was the rule laid down in the Talmud and the Mishnah ({J. Halley, p. 397}, {Virtual Jerusalem Website}, Anstey and other chronologers cite the same rule.)

    Every rule has its exceptions. It seems the NK started using the Non-Accession Year system with Jeroboam and switched to the Accession Year system after Ahaziah. That is, the eight kings from Jeroboam down to Ahaziah all used the Non-Accession Year system. The subsequent kings followed in his steps until Jehoram. He started using the Accession Year system of the SK. (There is a possibility that Amaziah also used the Accession Year system. The scriptures would allow either method. Since he was made viceroy by his father Ahab, we assume this happened on the Jewish New Year and hence the Accession method would apply to his reign.) The Non-Accession year system was used only once in the SK during the reign of Joash.

  3. The king counted the first year of his reign from his viceroyship. Viceroy years were assumed to start at the beginning of the Jewish New Year. Ussher found no exceptions to this rule as laid down by the Talmud and the Mishnah. {See Virtual Jerusalem website.}

    Ahaziah (SK) {2Ki 8:25 2Ch 22:2} presents an interesting case which conforms to this rule although at first glance it may not seem to. Jehoram (SK) in his 7th year as king was struck with a disease that lasted two years, (part of the 7th year and part of his 8th year) which eventually killed him. Likely in the 7th year Ahaziah was made viceroy because Jehoram could no longer handle the kingdom because he was quite sick. This would be after the Jewish New Year so Ahaziah would not normally consider this his first year of the kingdom until the next Jewish New Year. {2Ki 8:25} We are told the he became king in the 11th year of Jehoram or Joram (NK) {2Ki 9:29} Joram was not killed by Jehu until his 12th year so this refers to the time when Jehoram (SK) made Ahaziah viceroy. The Bible said he reigned for one year {2Ki 8:25} and although he reigned in part of the 11th year of Joram (NK) his first new year did not occur until the 12th year of Joram (NK).

  4. The Babylonian kings counted the start of their reign like the kings of Israel and Judah, only they used the starting period of Nabonassar. This epoch started on the Wednesday evening of February 26th, 747 BC. (Thiele—in an appendix to his book, "Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings"—states without giving his source, that this was based on a 365 day year and would regress one day every four years. If this was so, the Babylonian New Year would be in mid-January on the Julian calendar by the time of Nebuchadnezzar. We know the Babylonians used a lunar calendar so this may introduce further uncertainty into the exact date for any given year.) The fact that the Babylonian New Year started a few weeks or months before the Jewish New Year, helps considerably in sorting out some supposed contradictions in the biblical chronology for the period of Nebuchadnezzar.

  5. Part years may be counted as full years. (See Virtual Jerusalem website.) You cannot impose 20th century western ideas of time keeping on the orientals either of today or those of 3000 years ago. This concept manifests itself in the Non-Accession Year dating method that was initially used by the NK and used only once in the SK.

  6. The phrase "in the nth year of A, B began to reign" can be understood in one of two ways.

    1. The nth year of A was the first year of the reign of B starting from Nisan. B actually reigned a few months before Nisan but this is not counted.

      This is the most frequent situation and should be followed unless there is a good reason not to.

    2. In the nth year of A was the actual time B started to reign before the month of Nisan. The first year of the reign of B would start on the following Nisan or the year n + 1 of A.

      This situation was relatively rare. Ussher found this case only occurred eight times.

      Asa {1Ki 15:8-10}
      Jehoshaphat {1Ki 22:41,42}
      Jehoram{2Ki 1:17 3:1 9:29}
      Jehoash {2Ki 13:10}
      Amaziah{2Ki 14:1,2 17:17}
      Ahaz{2Ki 16:1,2}
      Hosea{2Ki 17:1}
      Hezekiah{2Ki 18:1}

      This situation is normally created by the Nisan to Nisan method of computing the 1st year of a king’s reign. It becomes clear when you plot the kings’ reigns how this is to be interpreted in each case. If you treat this case like the first case, you will not proceed very far before you encounter a logical contradiction in calculating the king lists. For the reasons why Ussher treated these kings like this, see his Latin copy of his Sacred Chronology. The author is now translating this into English.

      The usually meaning for the phrase, began to reign refers to the time the king first started to rule either as sole king (if he was not appointed viceroy previously) or to the time when he was appointed as viceroy. Occasionally, it refers to the time when a king began to reign as a sole king after reigning for some months or years as viceroy. Two examples of this are Omri in 925 BC and Jeroboam in 825 BC. In both these cases the nth year of king X refers from the time the king first reigned as viceroy not as sole king.

      Asa

      From the charts for the period of 960 - 946 BC, we can see that if the first Jewish New Year of Asa was the 20th year of Jeroboam, then the reign of Asa would overlap by part of a year with his father Abijam. From the passage 1Ki 15:8-10, it most likely seems that Abijam died before Asa reigned. Also if Asa started his reign a year early then Nadab would overlap the last year of his father Jeroboam. It seems unlikely that both Abijam and Jeroboam would appoint there sons a viceroys. To avoid these unlikely scenarios, it seems best to have the first partial year of Asa correspond with the 20th year of Jeroboam.

      Jehoshaphat

      From the charts for the period of 915 - 886 BC, we can see that if the first Jewish New Year of Jehoshaphat was the 4th year of Ahab then Ahab’s son, Jehoram would start his reign a year earlier and would overlap both Ahab and Ahab’s son, Amaziah by a year. It is highly unlikely Ahab would appoint two son’s a viceroys. The passage 2Ki 1:17 states that Jehoram reigned after the death of Amaziah, not before. Therefore, the first partial year of Jehoshaphat’s reign must be noted as the 4th year of Ahab at avoid this contradiction.

      Jehoram

      From the chart for the period of 900 - 886 BC, we can see that if the case of Jehoram was treated normally than he would have been reigning in the 22nd year of Ahab and in the second year of Azariah. It is unlikely that Ahab would appoint two son as viceroy at the same time. The passage 2Ki 1:17 states that Jehoram reigned after the death of Amaziah, not before. Therefore, the first partial year of his reign must be noted as the second year of Jehoram of Judah to avoid this contradiction.

      Jehoash

      Explanation awaits the completion of the translation of Ussher’s Sacred Chronology from the Latin.

      Amaziah

      Explanation awaits the completion of the translation of Ussher’s Sacred Chronology from the Latin.

      Ahaz

      Explanation awaits the completion of the translation of Ussher’s Sacred Chronology from the Latin.

      Hosea

      If you started the reign a year earlier, Hezekiah’s reign would be a year earlier too and you would destroy the meaning of the sign the Lord gave to Hezekiah.

      Hezekiah

      If you start the actual reign of Hezekiah a year earlier you destroy the meaning of the sign God gave him in the last year of the attack by Sennacherib. {2Ch 32:22 Isa 37:31,32} The Jubilee year would have been a year later in the reign of Hezekiah and the sign would be contradicted. Hence, you must start the first partial year of Hezekiah with the 3rd year of Hoshea. See Ussher’s Annals of the World, paragraph 673ff for more details.

4.0 Constraints

  1. The time period from Rehoboam to captivity must fit one of the following three categories according to Eze 4:5:

    1. 388 whole years plus two partial years, one at each end of the period.

    2. 389 whole years and one partial year at one end of the period.

    3. 390 whole years and no partial years.

    Ussher’s reconstruction satisfies the first case because we eliminate the other two from a study of history. The period did not begin and end on a whole year boundary.

    This method of calculating time is found elsewhere in the Bible and is not unusual with the Hebrews. In Numbers, God cursed the children of Israel to wander 40 years in the wilderness. {Nu 14:34} In fact the entire journey from Egypt was about four days short of 40 years or 39 whole years, 11 months and about 27 days. This was including the wanderings they did in the wilderness. Their actual wanderings lasted little more than 37 whole years plus two part years for a total of 38 years and a few months. Their actual journey lasted more than a year for they celebrated the second Passover at Mount Sinai, a year after they left Egypt. {Ex 40:17} Therefore, the wanderings would be the total elapsed time less the travel time from Egypt to the promised land, or about 38 years.

    If the Bible told us the terminus a quo and terminus ad quem of the 390 year period of Israel, it would help us understand what this period referred to. In Eze 4:4,5 the phrase iniquity of the house of Israel is mentioned twice. We must determine either the starting or ending point of this period to know for certain what historical period this refers to. Ezekiel tells us expressly in the prophecy concerning Edom or Mount Seir when the period ended. In Eze 35:5 we are told the their (Israel’s) iniquity had an end and this was in the time of their calamity. According to Ps 137:7 this refers to the time when the Edomites were cheering on the destruction of Jerusalem. In Ob 1:9-14 the event is elaborated on in more detail. In Ob 1:13 it is expressly called the day of their (Israel’s) calamity which was the time when their iniquity had an end according to Eze 35:5. This ties the terminus ad quem to the fall of Jerusalem in 588 BC according to the biblical chronology and from this we deduce the 390 year period refers to the time of the divided kingdom and the terminus a quo was in 975 BC. We are indebted to Dr. Floyd Jones for this insightful information. If one checks the old commentaries like John Calvin, we find this was not a new concept, but the studied conclusion of most Jewish rabbis with which many of the reformers concurred. The fact now establishes an independent check on any reconstruction of length of the divided kingdom. The Assyrian reconstruction of the divided kingdom fails miserably—Ussher’s does not!

  2. The king lists synchronise themselves at 884 BC when Jehu killed the kings of both kingdoms and the late fall of 722 BC or the winter of 721 BC when Samaria fell.

  3. The two intersection points with secular history are the fall of Samaria in early 721 BC, and the death of Nebuchadnezzar in early 562 BC. The text says at the end of three years they took it, {2Ki 18:10} which would most likely by late winter in 721 BC or very late in the fall of 722 BC. The biblical data would favour the late winter of 721 BC but could be harmonized with the 722 BC date if there was data to establish that date.

5.0 Alias Names for Kings

The following kings went by more than on name. The date reflects the year they started to reign.

958 BC-Abijam or Abijah (SK)
896 BC-Jehoram or Joram (NK)
878 BC-Joash or Jehoash (SK)
841 BC-Joash or Jehoash (NK)
811 BC-Uzziah or Azariah (SK)
599 BC-Jehoiachin or Jeconiah or Coniah (SK)

6.0 The Chronology of the Divided Kingdom

          1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9 YDK

    975 974 973 972 971 970 969 968 967 966 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK .1...2...3...4...5...6...7...8...9..10.. Rehoboam

NK   1..2...3...4...5...6...7...8...9..10.. Jeroboam

   a b          c   d
  1. Rehoboam, at age 41, reigned for 17 years {1Ki 14:21 2Ch 12:13}

  2. Jeroboam reigned for 22 years. {1Ki 14:20} He used Non-Accession Year dating. He was crowned on the 23rd of the third Jewish month of called Sivan and the Jews hold a fast in memorial of this sad event. {*Josephus, Antiq., l. 14. c. 4. s. 3. note (a) in Whiston’s translation}

  3. Rehoboam forsook God in his 3rd year. {2Ch 11:17}

  4. Shishak invaded Judah in the 5th year of Rehoboam. {1Ki 14:25 2Ch 12:2}

     10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19 YDK

    965 964 963 962 961 960 959 958 957 956 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 11..12..13..14..15..16..17..             Rehoboam

                              ..1...2...3.. Abijam

                                          . Asa

NK 11..12..13..14..15..16..17..18..19..20.. Jeroboam

                               a          b
 
  1. In the 18th year of Jeroboam, Abijam reigned for 3 years {1Ki 15:1,2 2Ch 13:1,2}

  2. In the 20th (24th in the LXX) year of Jeroboam, Asa reigned for 41 years. {1Ki 15:9,10}

     20  21  22  23  24  25  26  27  28  29 YDK

    955 954 953 952 951 950 949 948 947 946 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK .1...2...3...4...5...6...7...8...9..10.. Asa

                   .1...2...3...4...5...6.. Asa’s Peace

NK .21.22..                                 Jeroboam

          1.2*                              Nadab

             1..2...3...4...5...6...7...8.. Baasha

          a  b     c
    1. In the 2nd year of Asa, Nadab reigned 2 years, in the last part of 2nd year of Asa and the first part of the 3rd year of Asa. He used Non-Accession Year dating. {1Ki 15:25}
    2. 10th Jubilee

  1. In the 3rd of Asa, Baasha murdered Nadab and reigned for 24 years. NK used Non-Accession dating. {1Ki 15:28,33}

  2. This was the start of 10 years of peace for Asa. {2 Ch 14:1,6,9 15:10} The origin was determined by counting backward from {2Ch 15:10} which was the 15th year, 3rd month of reign of Asa.

Problem 1:

  1. Asa had 10 years of peace.
    1. Asa had 10 years of peace. {2Ch 14:1}
    2. There was no war until the 35th year of Asa. {2Ch 15:19}
  2. Asa had war with Baasha all his days. {1Ki 15:16,32}

Resolution:

  1. He likely had 10 years of relative peace with no major wars before 941 BC.

     30  31  32  33  34  35  36  37  38  39 YDK

    945 944 943 942 941 940 939 938 937 936 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 11..12..13..14..15..16..17..18..19..20.. Asa

   .7...8...9..10..                         Asa’s Peace

NK .9..10..11..12..13..14..15..16..17..18.. Baasha

                    a b
  1. The invasion of Ethiopians occurred shortly before this celebration which was in the 35th year from the start of the divided kingdom {2Ch 15:10 15:19} The victory celebration was in the 15th year and the 3rd month of the reign of Asa. {2Ch 15:10}

  2. Baasha reacted to defection of his subjects to Asa and started to build Ramah in the 36th (38th in the LXX) year from the start of the divided kingdom {2Ch 15:9,16:1}

Problem 2:

  1. Baasha attacked Asa in the 36th year of his reign. {2Ch 16:1}
  2. Baasha died in the 26th year of Asa’s reign.
    1. In the 3rd year of Asa, Baasha murdered Nadab and reigned for 24 years. {1Ki 15:28,33}
    2. Therefore he died in the 26th year of Asa.

Resolution:

  1. This was in the 36th year of the divided kingdom not the 36th year of the reign of Asa. The Hebrew could be rendered either way.
     40  41  42  43  44  45  46  47  48  49 YDK

    935 934 933 932 931 930 929 928 927 926 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 21..22..23..24..25..26..27..28..29..30.. Asa

NK 19..20..21..22..23..24..                 Baasha

                          1.2.*             Elah

                              1             Zimri

                              1.2...3...4.. Tibni

                               1.2...3...4.. Omri

                          a   b
  1. In the 26th (omitted by the LXX) year of Asa, Elah reigned 2 years, part of one year and part of the next year. He used Non-Accession Year dating. {1Ki 16:8}

    1. In the 27th (omitted by the LXX) year of Asa, Zimri murdered Elah and reigned 7 days and committed suicide to avoid being killed by Omri. {1Ki 16:10,15}
    2. Some of the people made Tibni king who reigned for 5 years. He used Non-Accession Year dating. {1Ki 16:21}
    3. Some of the people made Omri king who reigned for 12 years. He used Non-Accession Year dating. {1Ki 16:22}

Problem 3:

  1. Baasha died in the 27th year of Asa
    1. In the 3rd year of Asa, Baasha murdered Nadab and reigns for 24 years. {1Ki 15:28,33}
  2. Baasha died in the 26th year of Asa. {1Ki 16:8}

Resolution:

  1. Baasha used the Non-Accession Year dating system for calculating the years of his reign and counted the year he murdered the previous king as the first year of his reign. Normally, he should have waited until the Jewish New Year to calculate his first year.

Problem 4:

  1. In the 26th year of Asa, Elah reigned for 2 years. {1Ki 16:8}
    1. In the 26th year of Asa, Elah reigned for 2 years. {1Ki 16:8}
    2. In the 27th year of Asa, Zimri reigned for 7 days. {1Ki 16:10}
    3. Therefore Elah only reigned for one year. (Hint: 27 - 26 = 1)

Resolution:

  1. The NK used the Non-Accession dating method at this time.

Problem 5:

  1. Omri started to reign in the 27th year of Asa. {1Ki 16:15-21}
  2. Omri started to reign in the 31st year of Asa. {1Ki 16:23}

Resolution:

  1. The first case refers to the divided reign of Omri and Tibni and the second case refers to the start of Omri’s sole reign after Tibni was killed. The text hints at this {1Ki 16:23} where it says he only reigned for 6 years in Tirzah. Likely, he took a year to build Samaria after defeating Tibni and then moved into his new capital city. A king started counting his years from the year he ascended to the throne. In this case Omri was king for about 5 years before the 31st year of Asa.

     50  51  52  53  54  55  56  57  58  59 YDK

    925 924 923 922 921 920 919 918 917 916 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 31..32..33..34..35..36..37..38..39..40.. Asa

                                      ..1.. Asa’s Disease

NK .5.*                                     Tibni

   .5...6...7...8...9..10..11..12..         Omri

                                  1.2...3.. Ahab

      a                           b   c
  1. In the 31st year of Asa, Tibni was killed and Omri reigned for 12 years starting from the time of death of Zimri and he reigned 6 years in Tirzah. {1Ki 16:22,23}
  2. In the 38th year of Asa, Ahab reigned for 22 years. {1Ki 16:29} He used Non-Accession Year dating. (The LXX has 2nd year of Jehoshaphat instead of 38th year of Asa.)
  3. In the 39th year of Asa, he was diseased in his feet until he died in his 41st (40th the LXX) year. {1Ki 15:23,24 2Ch 16:12,13}
     60  61  62  63  64  65  66  67  68  69 YDK

    915 914 913 912 911 910 909 908 907 906 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 41..                                     Asa

   .2..                                     Asa’s Disease

      ..1...2...3...4...5...6...7...8...9.. Jehoshaphat

NK .4...5...6...7...8...9..10..11..12..13.. Ahab

      a         b                         c
  1. In the 4th year of Ahab, Jehoshaphat at age 35, reigned for 25 years. {1Ki 22:41,42 2Ch 20:31}
  2. In his 3rd year, Jehoshaphat sent Levites to instruct the people. {2Ch 17:7-9}
  3. The 11th Jubilee.
     70  71  72  73  74  75  76  77  78  79 YDK

    905 904 903 902 901 900 899 898 897 896 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 10..11..12..13..14..15..16..17..18..19.. Jehoshaphat

                                1...2...3.. Jehoram Viceregent

NK 14..15..16..17..18..19..20..21..22.X     Ahab

                         ...1...2...3..     Peace with Syria

                                1...2..  Ahaziah  Viceroy/king

                                       ..1.. Jehoram

                    a    b      c     d
  1. First Syrian invasion of NK by Benhadad. {1Ki 20:1-25 22:1,2}
    1. Second invasion by Benhadad about a year later. {1Ki 20:26}
    2. There was 3 years of peace with Syria ending with Ahab’s death. {1Ki 22:1,2}
      1. In the 18th year of Jehoshaphat, Jehoram (NK) reigned for 12 years. {2Ki 3:1}<
      2. In the 2nd year of Jehoram (SK), Jehoram (NK) started to reign. {2Ki 1:17} This was the 18th year of Jehoshaphat in the LXX where the verse is 18 not 17.
      3. Therefore, Jehoram (SK), became viceregent in the 17th year of Jehoshaphat. Jehoshaphat was preparing for war with Ahab against Syria and appointed his son as viceregent for that time. (Hint: 18 - 2 + 1 = 17)
    1. In the 17th year of Jehoshaphat, Amaziah reigned as viceroy for 2 years. Amaziah reigned for part of one and part of the next year. If Ahab appointed him viceroy on the Jewish New Year then Amaziah used Accession Year dating. If he was made viceroy after the New Year then Amaziah used Non-Accession Year dating. Both possibilities exist and are agreeable to the scriptures. Both Jehoshaphat and Ahab planned to fight with Syria and left their sons in charge lest any misfortune overtook them. This was a prudent precaution. {1Ki 22:51 2Ki 3:1}
    1. In the 18th year of Jehoshaphat, Jehoram (NK) reigned for 12 years. {2Ki 3:1}
    2. In the 2nd year of Jehoram’s viceregency (SK), Jehoram (NK) started to reign. {2Ki 1:17} NK used Accession dating starting with this king until the fall of the NK.

Problem 6:

    1. In the 17th year of Jehoshaphat, Amaziah (NK) reigned for 2 years. {1Ki 22:51}
    2. Therefore Ahab must have died in the 17th year of Jehoshaphat.
    1. Ahab became king in the 38th year of Asa and reigned for 22 years. {1Ki 16:29}
    2. Jehoshaphat became king in the 4th year of Ahab. {1Ki 22:41}
    3. Therefore Ahab died in 18th year of Jehoshaphat. (Hint: 22 - 4 = 18)

Resolution:

  1. The first case refers to the time when Ahab made Amaziah viceroy before going to fight with the Syrians. Both the father and son died in the 18th year of Jehoshaphat, the father by the Syrians and the son by a disease.

Problem 7:

  1. Jehoram (NK) began to reign in the 2nd year of Jehoram (SK). {2Ki 1:17}
  2. Jehoram (SK) began to reign in the 5th year of Jehoram of Israel. {2Ki 8:16,17}

Resolution:

  1. The first case refers from the time when Jehoram (SK) was made viceregent and the second case refers to the time when he was made viceroy by Jehoshaphat. It appears the years of the king’s reign were counted either from the time he became viceregent or viceroy. See discussion for "Viceregent" under "Terms" as well as under point E in this section.

     80  81  82  83  84  85  86  87  88  89 YDK

    895 894 893 892 891 890 889 888 887 886 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 20..21..22..23..24..25..                 Jehoshaphat

   .4...5...6...                            Jehoram 

                                            Viceregent

                1...2...3...4...5...6...7.. Jehoram

                                            Viceroy/king

                                         .. Jehoram’s Disease

                                         .. Ahaziah Viceroy

NK .2...3...4...5...6...7...8...9..10..11.. Jehoram

                a                         b
  1. In the 5th year of Jehoram (NK), Jehoram (SK) at age 32 reigned for 8 years. This was a unique case in the chronology and neither the Bible nor the Talmud shed any light on how to handle it. This was the only time when a viceregent became a viceroy. From the chart we see that Jehoshaphat made him viceroy at the beginning of his 23rd year of his reign and he was viceroy until Jehoshaphat died about 3 years later. {2Ki 8:16,17 2Ch 21:2,3,5,20}
    1. Jehoram was diseased in his bowels for two years before he died after reigning for 8 years. {2Ch 21:18-20}
    2. In the 11th year of Joram, Amaziah was made viceroy, likely because of Jehoram’s disease which he contracted this year. {See a1 under 885 BC.} {2Ki 9:29}
     90  91  92  93  94  95  96  97  98  99 YDK

    885 884 883 882 881 880 879 878 877 876 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK .8..                                     Jehoram

   .1..                                     Jehoram’s Disease

   .1.X                                     Ahaziah

      ..1...2...3...4...5...6...7.*         Athaliah

                                  1.2...3.. Joash

NK 12.*                                     Ahaziah King

      ..1...2...3...4...5...6...7...8...9.. Jehu

      a                           b
 
    1. In the 12th year of Jehoram (NK), Ahaziah, at 22 years of age, reigned for part of a year. {2Ki 8:25,26 2Ch 22:2} He had already been viceroy so when the Jewish New Year came he started his first year of his reign. In {2Ch 22:2} his age is given as 42 and as 20 in the LXX.
    2. Jehu killed Jehoram (NK). {2Ki 9:24,25}
    3. Jehu killed Ahaziah (SK). {2Ki 9:27}
    4. Athaliah reigned over Judah for 6 years and was killed in her 7th year. (LXX—8th year {2Ch 23:1} and in {2Ki 11:4 2Ch 24:1} it is the 7th year!) {2Ki 11:3,4,16 2Ch 22:12 23:1,15}
    5. Jehu killed Joram (Jehoram (NK)) and reigned in Israel for 28 years. {2Ki 9:14,10:36}
  1. Athaliah was murdered and Joash, at age 7, reigned for 40 years. Joash used Non-Accession dating. {2Ki 11:4,21 12:1 2Ch 23:1 24:1} This was the only time in the SK the Non-Accession dating was used.

Problem 8:

  1. Ahaziah was 22 years old when he became king. {2Ki 8:26}
  2. Ahaziah was 42 years old when he became king. {2Ch 22:2}

Resolution:

  1. The writer was referring to his age from when Omri became king.
  2. There was a scribal error confusing Hebrew letter KAHF (number 20) for the letter MEM (number 40). This is the most likely explanation.

    This does not alter the chronology.

Problem 9:

  1. Ahaziah became king in the 11th year of Joram. {2Ki 9:29}
  2. Ahaziah became king in the 12th year of Joram. {2Ki 8:25}

Resolution:

  1. He became viceroy in the 11th year and king in the 12th year. Judah’s King Jehoram was not a well man. See point 3 under assumptions for a fuller treatment of this case.
    100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 YDK

    875 874 873 872 871 870 869 868 867 866 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK .4...5...6...7...8...9..10..11..12..13.. Joash

NK 10..11..12..13..14..15..16..17..18..19.. Jehu

 

    110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 YDK

    865 864 863 862 861 860 859 858 857 856 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 14..15..16..17..18..19..20..21..22..23.. Joash

NK 20..21..22..23..24..25..26..27..28..     Jehu

                                      ..1.. Jehoahaz

                                      ab c
  1. In the 23rd year of Joash, Jehoahaz reigned for 17 years over Israel. {2Ki 13:1}
  2. The 12th Jubilee.
  3. Joash repaired the temple in his 23rd year. {2Ki 12:6}

Problem 10:

  1. Jehoahaz’s reign started in the 23rd year of Joash. {2Ki 13:1}
  2. Jehoahaz’s reign started in the 22nd year of Joash.
    1. Jehu reigned for 28 years. {2Ki 10:36}
    2. In the 7th year of Jehu, Joash reigned for 40 years. {2Ki 12:1}
    3. Jehu died in the 22nd year of Joash. (Hint: 28 - 7 + 1 = 22)
    4. Therefore Jehoahaz’s reign started in the 22nd year of Joash.

Resolution:

  1. 1) This was the only time when the SK used the Non-Accession dating method. The king numbered the first year of his reign starting with the year he became king and not at the Jewish New Year. Athaliah had usurped the throne and Joash’s guardians likely felt this departure from protocol was justified in the light of the circumstances. Hence this would make Jehoahaz start to rule in the 23rd not the 22nd year of Joash.

    120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 YDK

    855 854 853 852 851 850 849 848 847 846 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 24..25..26..27..28..29..30..31..32..33.. Joash

NK .2...3...4...5...6...7...8...9..10..11.. Jehoahaz

 

    130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 YDK

    845 844 843 842 841 840 839 838 837 836 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 34..35..36..37..38..39..40.X             Joash

                          ..1...2...3...4.. Amaziah

NK 12..13..14..15..16..17                   Jehoahaz

                  ..1...2...3...4...5...6.. Jehoash

                                        1.. Jeroboam II

                                            (Viceroy)

                  a       b             c
  1. In the 37th year of Joash, Jehoash was made viceroy for 2 years, and reigned for 16 years. {2Ki 13:10}


  2. In the 2nd year of Jehoash, Amaziah, at age 25, was made viceroy and then king for 29 years. {2Ki 14:1,2 2Ch 25:1}


  3. In the 15th year of Amaziah, Jeroboam II began to reign as sole king for 41 years. {2Ki 14:23} However, in {2Ki 15:1} we find that Uzziah became the king in the 27th year of Jeroboam. To reconcile this we must assume that Jeroboam was made viceroy for 12 years in the 4th year of Amaziah or in the 6th year of Jeroboam’s father, Jehoash. (Josephus gave a similar explanation. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 9. c. 10. s. 3. (215,216) 6:113,115}) In {2Ki 13:25} we read that Jehoash fought and won three battles with the Syrians. We are not told when these battles were fought but it may be after the time Jeroboam was made viceroy. Jehoash likely appointed Jeroboam as viceroy before fighting these major battles with an enemy that had beaten Israel before, and had killed a king of Israel in a previous battle. This would explain the long overlap in the reigns between the father and the son. In spite of Elisha’s promises of victory {2Ki 13:19}, Jehoash wanted to be careful just in case Elisha was wrong. The history of the Northern Kingdom was not noted for a smooth transition of power when a king died. Ahab appointed his son as viceroy before he went to fight with the Syrians, as did Jehoshaphat who accompanied Ahab in the battle with the Syrians.

    Another explanation of this has been given by Lightfoot and others. They think Uzziah reigned in the 27th year of Jeroboam and Jeroboam was not a viceroy with his father. This would create an interregnum in the SK of 13 or so years thus extending the entire period of the divided kingdom by that much time to about 403 years. However, as pointed out earlier, we know the total length of the divided kingdom was 390 years, hence this explanation cannot be correct.

Problem 11:

  1. Jehoash began to reign in the 37th year of Joash. {2Ki 13:10}
    1. In the 23rd year of Joash (SK), Jehoahaz reigned for 17 years. {2Ki 13:1}
    2. Therefore Jehoash began to reign in the 39th or 40th year of Joash. (Hint: 23 + 17 = 40 or 23 + 17 - 1 = 39)

Resolution:

  1. Jehoash was made viceroy in the 37th year of Joash. You cannot assume he started to reign after the death of Jehoahaz without creating a logical contradiction.

Problem 12:

  1. In the 23rd year of Joash (SK), Jehoahaz’s reign lasted 17 years. {2Ki 13:1}
    1. In the 23rd year of Joash (SK), Jehoahaz reigned in the NK. {2Ki 13:1}
    2. In the 37th year of Joash (SK), Jehoash reigned in the NK. {2Ki 13:10}
    3. Therefore, Jehoahaz’s reign lasted 15 years. (Hint: 37 - 23 + 1 = 15)

Resolution:

  1. Jehoash was made viceroy for 2 years by Jehoahaz.

    140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 YDK

    835 834 833 832 831 830 829 828 827 826 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK .5...6...7...8...9..10..11..12..13..14.. Amaziah

NK .7...8...9..10..11..12..13..14..15..16.. Jehoash

   .2...3...4...5...6...7...8...9..10..11.. Jeroboam II

                                            (Viceroy)

                                          . Jeroboam II

                                            (Sole King)

                                          a
  1. In the 15th year of Amaziah, Jeroboam II began to reign as sole king for 41 years. {2Ki 14:23} Uzziah’s ascension date started from time Jeroboam became viceroy not when he became sole king.

Problem 13:

    1. Jehu reigned for 28 years. {2Ki 10:36}
    2. In the 7th year of Jehu, Joash became king and reigned for 40 years. {2Ki 12:1}
    3. Therefore, Amaziah reigned in the 47th year from the start of Jehu’s reign. (Hint: 40 + 7 = 47)<
    1. Jehu reigned for 28 years. {2Ki 10:36}
    2. In the 23rd year of Joash, Jehoahaz became king and reigned 17 years. {2Ki 13:10}
    3. Amaziah started to reign in the 2nd year of Jehoahaz. {2Ki 14:1}
    4. Therefore the start of Amaziah’s reign in 49th year from the start of Jehu’s reign which would be the 4th year of Jehoahaz. (Hint: 7 + 23 + 17 + 2 = 49)

Resolution:

    1. Joash counted the year he became king as his first year and did not wait until the Jewish New Year. This accounts for one year of the difference. This reduces both totals by one to 46 from 47 and 48 from 49. This was the only time the SK used the Non-Accession dating method.
    2. Jehoahaz made Jehoash viceroy for 2 years. This subtracts 2 years from the second total of 49 making it 47.
    3. Therefore the correct total of years for this period when one considers the year a king became king and viceroy relationships is 47 years.

      This supposed contradiction was most involved and we are surprised anyone found it!

    150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 YDK

    825 824 823 822 821 820 819 818 817 816 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 15..16..17..18..19..20..21..22..23..24.. Amaziah

   .1...2...3...4...5...6...7...8...9..10.. To Death of

                                            Amaziah

NK 12..13..14..15..16..17..18..19..20..21.. Jeroboam II

                                            (Viceroy)

   .1...2...3...4...5...6...7...8...9..10.. Jeroboam II

                                            (Sole King)

   a
    1. In the 15th year of Amaziah, Jeroboam II reigned as sole king for 41 years after the death of his father, Jehoash who died the same year. {2Ki 14:23}
    2. Amaziah lived for 15 years after the death of Jehoash. {2Ki 14:17,23 2Ch 25:25}
    160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 YDK

    815 814 813 812 811 810 809 808 807 806 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 25..26..27..28..29..                     Amaziah

   11..12..13..14..15..                     To Death of

                                            Amaziah

                      ..1...2...3...4...5.. Uzziah

NK 22..23..24..25..26..27..28..29..30..31.. Jeroboam II

                                            (Viceroy)

   11..12..13..14..15..16..17..18..19..20.. Jeroboam II

                                            (Sole King)

                     a            b
  1. In the 27th year from the viceroyship of Jeroboam II, Uzziah, at age 16 began to reign for 52 years. This corresponds to the 15th year of Jeroboam II reigning as sole king. {2Ki 15:1,2 2Ch 26:3}
  2. The 13th Jubilee.
    170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 YDK

    805 804 803 802 801 790 799 798 797 796 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK .6...7...8...9..10..11..12..13..14..15.. Uzziah

NK 32..33..34..35..36..37..38..39..40..41.. Jeroboam II

                                            (Viceroy)

   21..22..23..24..25..26..27..28..29..30.. Jeroboam II

                                            (Sole king)
Problem 14:
  1. The first year of Uzziah’s reign was the 27th year of Jeroboam II {2Ki 15:1}
    1. Amaziah reigned for 29 years. {2Ki 14:2}
    2. Amaziah lived 15 years after the death of Jehoash (NK). {2Ki 14:17}
    3. In the 15th year Amaziah, Jeroboam II became king. {2Ki 14:23}
    4. Therefore, Uzziah’s first year of his reign was the 16th year of Jeroboam II. (Hint: 29 + 1 - 15 = 15)

Resolution:

  1. Jeroboam became viceroy likely when his father went to fight the Syrians in 836 BC. The first case refers to the time from his viceroyship, whereas the second case is dated from the time he became sole king. The Talmudic rule is that a king’s first year always began with his first year as viceroy not as sole king.

Problem 15:

    1. In the 15th year of Amaziah, Jeroboam II became king and reigned for 41 years. {2Ki 14:23}
    2. In the 27th year of Jeroboam II, Uzziah became king. {2Ki 15:1}
    3. Therefore, Jeroboam was contemporary with Uzziah for 14 years. (Hint: 41 - 27 + 1 = 15)
    1. Jeroboam II died in the 38th year of Uzziah when Zachariah became king. {2Ki 15:8}
    2. Therefore Jeroboam was contemporary with Uzziah for 38 years.

Resolution:

  1. Same resolution as the previous problem. In case 2 it is incorrect to assume that Zachariah became king the same year as Jeroboam II’s death for Jeroboam II died in the 26th year of Uzziah, about 12 years earlier. There was an interregnum of about 12 years before Zachariah came to the throne.

    180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 YDK

    795 794 793 792 791 790 789 788 787 786 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 16..17..18..19..20..21..22..23..24..25.. Uzziah

NK 42..43..44..45..46..47..48..49..50..51.. Jeroboam II

                                            (Viceroy)

   31..32..33..34..35..36..37..38..39..40.. Jeroboam II

                                            (Sole King)

 

    190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 YDK

    785 784 783 782 781 780 779 778 777 776 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 26..27..28..29..30..31..32..33..34..35.. Uzziah

NK 52..                                     Jeroboam II

                                            (Viceroy)

   41..                                     Jeroboam II

                                            (Sole King)

      ..1...2...3...4...5...6...7...8...9.. Interregnum

      a
  1. There is no king mentioned who reigned in the Northern Kingdom during this period of about 12 years. {2Ki 14:23 15:8}
    200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 YDK

    775 774 773 772 771 770 769 768 767 766 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 36..37..38..39..40..41..42..43..44..45.. Uzziah

NK 10..11..12.                              Interregnum

              .*                            Zachariah

                *                           Shallum

                 ...1...2...3...4...5...6.. Menahem

              a bc
  1. In the last 6 months of Uzziah’s 38th year, Zachariah reigned for 6 months. {2Ki 15:8} We assumed it was the last 6 months for sake of argument. Any 6 month period that started in Uzziah’s 38th year and ended in Nisan or later in Uzziah’s 39th year would also work.

  2. In the 39th year of Uzziah, Shallum murdered Zachariah and reigned one month. {2Ki 15:13}

  3. Menahem murdered Shallum and reigned 10 years. This illustrates the Nisan to Nisan rule. Although he started to rule in the 2nd month of the 39th year of Uzziah, his first year was not counted until the 40th year. He really reigned more than 10 whole years but using the Nisan to Nisan method, his reign is given as 10 years only and the months he reigned in the 39th year of Uzziah are not counted. {2Ki 15:13,17}

    210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 YDK

    765 764 763 762 761 760 759 758 757 756 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 46..47..48..49..50..51..52..             Uzziah

                              ..1...2...3.. Jotham

NK .7...8...9..10..                         Menahem

                  ..1...2.*                 Pekahiah

                          ..1...2...3...4.. Pekah

                  a         b c d
  1. In the 50th year of Uzziah, Pekahiah reigned for 2 years. {2Ki 15:23}

  2. In the 52nd year of Uzziah, Pekah murdered Pekahiah and reigned for 20 years. {2Ki 15:27}

  3. The 14th Jubilee.

  4. In the 2nd year of Pekah, Jotham, at age 25, reigned for 16 years. {2Ki 15:32, 2Ch 27:1,8} Jewish tradition stated that Uzziah was smitten with leprosy in the last few months of his life and Jotham reigned as viceroy during that time. They placed this event at the same time Isaiah {Isa 6:4} had his vision of the Lord. The text said the posts of the temple moved when the Lord spoke. Josephus stated that an earthquake occurred and the temple’s holy of holies was rent allowing light to enter when Uzziah was in it offering his sacrifice. His account of the earthquake is a little hard to believe. He said that half the mountain near Eroge, was rolled half a mile by the earthquake. If this was the case, we think all of Jerusalem would have been flattened by the force of the quake. In Amos {Am 1:1} a memorable earthquake is mentioned. According to Ussher’s chronology, this would have been about 25 years earlier when the kings that were mentioned in that verse were still alive. Earthquakes in Palestine are quite common. {Josephus, Antiquities, l. 9. c. 10. s. 2. (225-227) 6:119,121} {Gill’s Expositor, on Isaiah 6:4, Amos 1:1} The Assyrian Eponym List record two earthquakes (they were called plagues), one in 765 BC and one in 759 BC. The latter earthquake coincided with the death of Uzziah and was likely the earthquake mentioned by Josephus. {Dorothy Bone, p. 204,205}

    220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 YDK

    755 754 753 752 751 750 749 748 747 746 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK .4...5...6...7...8...9..10..11..12..13.. Jotham

NK .5...6...7...8...9..10..11..12..13..14.. Pekah

 

    230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 YDK

    745 744 743 742 741 740 739 738 737 736 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 14..15..16..                             Jotham

               ..1...2...3...4...5...6...7.. Ahaz

                  ..1...2...3...4...5...6.. Isaiah’s Prophecy

NK 15..16..17..18..19..20.*                 Pekah

                          ..1...2...3...4.. Interregnum

              a   b       c
  1. In the 17th year of Pekah, Ahaz, at age 20, reigned for 16 years. {2Ki 16:1,2, 2Ch 28:1}

  2. In the first year of Ahaz, Isaiah predicted the final and utter destruction of the Northern Kingdom in 65 years. {Isa 7:8,9}

  3. There was no king mentioned in the Northern Kingdom who reigned during this period. Hoshea murdered Pekah but was unable to gain control of the kingdom. {2Ki 15:27,30 17:1}

Problem 16:

  1. Hoshea started to reign in the 20th year of Jotham. {2Ki 15:30}

  2. Jotham only reigned 16 years. {2Ki 15:33}

Resolution:

  1. This was an unusual way of reckoning. For some reason Ahaz was ignored in Judah’s king list (maybe because he was so wicked) and the time was calculated from the start of Jotham’s reign.

  2. Jotham may have turned the kingdom entirely over to his son in the 16th year of his reign and retired from public affairs and lived 4 more years. He would have died in the 20th year from the time he became king.

Problem 17:

  1. In the 20th year of Jotham (4th year of Ahaz), Hoshea killed Pekah and became king. {2Ki 15:30}

  2. Hoshea started to reign in the 12th year of Ahaz. {2Ki 17:1}

Resolution:

  1. Unless we had the text for the second point we would normally assume Hoshea reigned directly after the death of Pekah. This text said that Hoshea began to reign in the 12th year of Ahaz. Hence, we deduce that there was an interregnum of 9 years when there was no king. This interpretation does no violence to the Hebrew text. The text for the first point stated he "reigned in his stead". The text for the second case clarifies the first and stated that he "began...to reign" in the 12th year of Ahaz.

    240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 YDK

    735 734 733 732 731 730 729 728 727 726 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK .8...9..10..11..12..13..14..15..16..     Ahaz

   .7...8...9..10..11..12..13..14..15..16.. Isaiah’s Prophecy

                                  ..1...2.. Hezekiah

NK .5...6...7...8...9..                     Interregnum

                      ..1...2...3...4...5.. Hoshea

                      a           b c
  1. In the 12th year of Ahaz, Hosea reigned for 9 years. {2Ki 17:1}

  2. In the 3rd year of Hoshea, while Ahaz was still alive, Hezekiah at age 25, was made viceroy then king after the death of Ahaz. He reigned for 29 years. {2Ki 18:1,2 2Ch 29:1}

  3. Hezekiah repaired the temple in the first month of the first year of his reign. {2Ch 29:3}

Problem 18:

  1. Hezekiah started to reign at age 25. {2Ki 18:2}

  2. Ahaz, his father died at age 36. {2Ki 16:2}

Resolution:

  1. It is not medically impossible for an eleven year old to sire a child. There are documented cases where ten year old children have done this.

  2. There was an error in the age of his father.

    250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 YDK

    725 724 723 722 721 720 719 718 717 716 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 17..18..19..20..21..22..23..24..25..26.. Isaiah’s Prophecy

   .3...4...5...6...7...8...9..10..11..12.. Hezekiah

NK .6...7...8...9...                        Hoshea

        a          b
  1. In the 4th year of Hezekiah and in the 7th year of Hoshea, Assyria attacked the Northern Kingdom and besieged Samaria for 3 years. {2Ki 17:5 18:9}

  2. In the 9th year of Hoshea and the 6th year of Hezekiah, the Assyrians captured the Northern Kingdom. This is toward the end of the 3rd year of the seige in early 721 BC. {2Ki 17:6 18:10}

    260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 YDK

    715 714 713 712 711 710 709 708 707 706 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 27..28..29..30..31..32..33..34..35..36.. Isaiah’s Prophecy

   13..14..15..16..17..18..19..20..21..22.. Hezekiah

           .1...2...3...                    Sennacherib’s War

           a b          cde
  1. In the 14th year of Hezekiah, Sennacherib attacked Hezekiah. {2Ki 18:13, Isa 36:1} This war on Egypt and Palestine lasted three whole years. {Isa 20:3} It appears Sennacherib launched his initial attack on Hezekiah and then went and fought in Egypt for 3 years and then returned to finish off Hezekiah.

    1. Hezekiah reigned for 29 years. {2Ki 18:1,2 2Ch 29:1}

    2. 15 years were added to Hezekiah’s life. {2Ki 20:6, Isa 38:5}

    3. Therefore his life was extended in the 15th year of Hezekiah. (Hint: 29 + 1 - 15 = 15)

  2. Sennacherib abandons attack on Hezekiah, returns to Assyria and is killed by his sons. {2Ki 19:37} This was likely 55 days after his return to Assyria. {/APC Tob 1:21}

  3. Manasseh born, 3 years after Hezekiah’s life was lengthened and 12 years before his death. {2Ki 21:1}

  4. The 15th Jubilee.

    270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 YDK

    705 704 703 702 701 700 699 698 697 696 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 23..24..25..26..27..28..29.              Hezekiah

   37..38..39..40..41..42..43..44..45..46.. Isaiah’s Prophecy

                              ..1...2...3.. Manasseh

                              a
  1. Manasseh, at age 12, reigned for 55 years. {2Ki 21:1 2Ch 33:1}

    280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 YDK

    695 694 693 692 691 690 689 688 687 686 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 47..48..49..50..51..52..53..54..55..56.. Isaiah’s Prophecy

   .4...5...6...7...8...9..10..11..12..13.. Manasseh

 

    290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 YDK

    685 684 683 682 681 680 679 678 677 676 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 57..58..59..60..61..62..63..64..65.      Isaiah’s Prophecy

    14..15..16..17..18..19..20..21..22..23.. Manasseh

                                     a
  1. In the 1st year of Ahaz’s reign, Isaiah predicted that in 65 years, the Northern Kingdom would be completely destroyed. This final destruction of the Northern Kingdom happened 65 years later by Esarhaddon. {Isa 7:8,9 2Ki 17:24} Tradition states that this was the time Manasseh was deported to Babylon. His captivity must have been brief since the scriptures take no notice of it. {2Ch 33:11} {See Gill ‘s Expositor on "Isa 7:8"}

    300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 YDK

    675 674 673 672 671 670 669 668 667 666 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 24..25..26..27..28..29..30..31..32..33.. Manasseh

 

    310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 YDK

    665 664 663 662 661 660 659 658 657 656 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 34..35..36..37..38..39..40..41..42..43.. Manasseh

                      a
  1. The 16th Jubilee.

    320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 YDK

    655 654 653 652 651 650 649 648 647 646 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 44..45..46..47..48..49..50..51..52..53.. Manasseh

 

    330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 YDK

    645 644 643 642 641 640 639 638 637 636 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 54..55..                                 Manasseh

          ..1...2.X                         Amnon

                  ..1...2...3...4...5...6.. Josiah

          a       b
  1. Amnon, at age 22, reigned 2 years and was murdered by his subjects. {2Ki 21:19 2Ch 33:21}

  2. Josiah, at age 8, reigned 31 years, then died in a battle with Egyptians. {2Ki 22:1,23:29 2Ch 34:1}

    340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 YDK

    635 634 633 632 631 630 629 628 627 626 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK .7...8...9..10..11..12..13..14..15..16.. Josiah

                            1...2...3...4.. Jeremiah’s

                                            Prophecy

        a                 b c
  1. In his 8th year, Josiah sought the Lord. {2Ch 34:3}

  2. In his 12th year, Josiah started to clean up Judah of idols. {2Ch 34:3}

  3. From the 13th year of Josiah until the 4th year of Jehoiakim was 23 years. This time period may have started with Josiah’s great cleanup of the land. {Jer 1:2 25:1,3}

    350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 YDK

    625 624 623 622 621 620 619 618 617 616 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 17..18..19..20..21..22..23..24..25..26.. Josiah

   .5...6...7...8...9..10..11..12..13..14.. Jeremiah’s

                                            Prophecy

        1...2...3...4...5...6...7...8...9.. Ezekiel’s Prophecy

           .1...2...3...4...5...6...7...8.. Judah’s Apostasy

        a  b
    1. In the 18th year of Josiah, the great passover was held. {2Ki 22:3 23:23 2Ch 34:8 35:19}

    2. From the great passover until the 5th year of Jehoiachin’s captivity, was 30 years. {Eze 1:1}

  1. This marks the beginning of the 40 years of Judah’s apostasy. After the mountain top experience of the Great Passover, Judah’s religious life went downhill for 40 years until the last of them were deported from the land. {Eze 4:6 Jer 52:30}

The 23 year time period given by Jeremiah and the 30 year time period given for Ezekiel spanned the reign of several kings. These served as an independent check on the procedure used to calculate this chronology. If Ussher had not followed the Talmudic rules, these two confirmations would not have occurred.

    360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 YDK

    615 614 613 612 611 610 609 608 607 606 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 27..28..29..30..31..                     Josiah

   15..16..17..18..19..20..21..22..23       Jeremiah’s

                                            Prophecy

   10..11..12..13..14..15..16..17..18..19.. Ezekiel’s Prophecy

                       .                    Jehoahaz

                        1...2...3...4...5.. Jehoiakim

   .9..10..11..12..13..14..15..16..17..18.. Judah’s Apostasy

BB                                 ....1... Nebuchadnezzar

                  a    bc          de
  1. The 17th Jubilee.

  2. Jehoahaz, at age 23, reigned three months. {2Ki 23:31 2Ch 36:2}

  3. Jehoiakim at age 25, reigned for 11 years. {2Ki 23:36 2Ch 36:5}

  4. Nebuchadnezzar was made viceroy in 607 BC just after the Babylonian New Year. He become sole king after the death of his father in 605 BC. If Nebuchadnezzar attacked Jerusalem in mid February he would be in the third year of Jehoiakim’s reign. If he captured it in the month Nisan a few weeks later, he would be in the fourth year of Jehoiakim’s reign. {Jer 25:1 Da 1:1} This was the biblical evidence for the viceroyship of Nebuchadnezzar lasting for more than one year. Secular historians only allow a one year viceroy period for Nebuchadnezzar. Christians who follow the secular historians, invariably reconstruct this period covering the entire reign of Nebuchadnezzar incorrectly. Eusebius stated that he was viceroy for 20 months and this agrees with the biblical reconstruction of that period.

    1. The time from the start of Jeremiah’s prophecies in the 13th year of Josiah to the 4th year of Jehoiakim, was 23 years. {Jer 25:1,3}

    2. Jeremiah’s prophecy in the 4th year of Jehoiakim. {Jer 36:1 45:1} Chapter 36 is chapter 43 in the LXX. Chapter 45 starts at 51:31 in the LXX.

    3. Nebuchadnezzar defeated Pharaohnecho in the 4th year of Jehoiakim. {Jer 46:2} Chapter 46 is chapter 26 in the LXX.

Problem 19:

  1. The 4th year of Jehoiakim’s reign was 1st year of Nebuchadnezzar’s {Jer 25:1 46:2}

  2. In the 3rd year of Jehoiakim’s reign, Nebuchadnezzar was king. {Da 1:1}

Resolution:

  1. The regal years for the Babylonian kings follow the period of Nabonassar which occurs a few weeks before the Jewish New Year. Nebuchadnezzar’s 1st year as viceroy would overlap the last few weeks of Jehoiakim’s 3rd year and most of his 4th year.

    370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 YDK

    605 604 603 602 601 600 599 598 597 596 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 20..21..22..23..24..25..26..27..28..29.. Ezekiel’s Prophecy

   .6...7...8...9..10..11...                Jehoiakim

                           .                Jehoiachin

                            1...2...3...4.. Jehoiachin’s

                                            Captivity

                             ...1...2...3.. Zedekiah

   19..20..21..22..23..24..25..26..27..28.. Judah’s Apostasy

BB 2...3...4...5...6...7...8...9..10..11... Nebuchadnezzar

   a   bc                  d e
  1. Jeremiah’s prophecy was made in the 5th year and the 9th month of Jehoiakim. {Jer 36:9} Chapter 36 is chapter 43 in the LXX. In the LXX it is the 8th year in the 9th month.

  2. Nebuchadnezzar’s dream occurred in the 2nd year of his kingdom after the death of his father. {Da 2:1}

  3. Jehoiakim rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar after serving him for 3 years. {2Ki 24:1}

    1. Nebuchadnezzar at the beginning of his 8th year just before the Jewish New Year in Nisan, captured Jehoiakim. At the end of his 7th year, 3023 Jews were deported. Jehoiakim’s captivity would start just before the Jewish New Year. {2Ki 24:12 Jer 52:28} Jer 52:28 is omitted in the LXX.

    2. dJehoiachin, at age 18, reigned for last part of Jewish Year and a short time into the next year for a total of 3 months. Nebuchadnezzar removed him after the Jewish New Year after his short 3 month reign. {2Ch 36:10} If he only reigned after the Jewish New Year then Jehoiakim would have reigned 12 years not 11 as the Bible stated. {2Ki 24:8 2Ch 36:9}

    3. This marked the beginning of Jehoiachin’s 37 years of captivity. {2Ki 25:27 Jer 52:31}

  4. Zedekiah, at age 21, reigned for 11 years. {2Ki 24:18 2Ch 36:11 Jer 52:1}

Problem 20:

  1. Nebuchadnezzar’s dream occurred in his 2nd year. {Da 2:1}

    1. Daniel and his friends were on probation for 3 years. {Da 1:1,5,18}

    2. 3rd and 4th year of Jehoiakim’s reign overlapped the 1st year of Nebuchadnezzar’s when Daniel and his company were carried away captive. {Jer 25:1 46:2 Da 1:1}

    3. Therefore, Nebuchadnezzar’s dream was in his 3rd year.

Resolution:

  1. The first case refers to the time from when he became sole ruler and the second case refers to the time from when he became viceroy. Foreign kings were not bound by Talmudic rules.

Problem 21:

  1. Jehoiachin was 18 years old. {2Ki 24:8}

  2. Jehoiachin was 8 years old. {2Ch 36:9}

Resolution:

  1. 1) There is likely a scribal error in {2Ch 36:9} where the Hebrew letter YODH (number 10) was dropped from the text.

Problem 22:

  1. Jehoiachin was captured by Nebuchadnezzar in the 8th year of his reign {2Ki 24:12}

  2. Jehoiachin was captured by Nebuchadnezzar in the 7th year of his reign {Jer 52:28}

Resolution:

  1. This was likely toward the end of the 7th year of Nebuchadnezzar and the beginning of the 8th year. The process of deportation may have carried on for a few weeks and spanned two years of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. This is the traditional Jewish understanding of this verse.

    380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 YDK

    595 594 593 592 591 590 589 588 587 586 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK .5...6...7...8...9..10..11..12..13..14.. Jehoiachin’s

                                            Captivity

   .4...5...6...7...8...9..10..11..         Zedekiah

   30..                                     Ezekiel’s Prophecy

                                  ..1...2.. Ezekiel’s Vision

   29..30..31..32..33..34..35..36..37..38.. Judah’s Apostasy

BB 2..13..14..15..16..17..18..19..20..21... Nebuchadnezzar

      a   b   c    d    e  fg    h i
    1. Hananiah’s false prophecy was in the 4th year and 5th month of Zedekiah and his death was in the 7th month of the same year. {Jer 28:1,17} Chapter 28 is chapter 35 in the LXX.

    2. Ezekiel’s first vision was in the 5th year of Jehoiachin’s captivity. This was the 30th year, 4th month and the 5th day from the time Ezekiel started to prophesy. {Eze 1:1,2}

  1. Ezekiel’s vision of Jerusalem, was in the 6th year, 6th month and the 5th day of Jehoiachin’s captivity. The LXX has 5th month. {Eze 8:1}

  2. Ezekiel’s vision of Israel was in the 7th year, 5th month and the 10th day of Jehoiachin’s captivity. The LXX omits the month and has the 15th day. {Eze 20:1}

  3. Ezekiel’s vision of various countries was in the 9th year, 10th month and the 10th day of Jehoiachin’s captivity. {Eze 24:1}

  4. In the 9th year, 10th month and the 10th day of Zedekiah’s reign, Nebuchadnezzar besieged Jerusalem for 3 years. The first part of Jeremiah chapter 39 is chapter 46 in the LXX. The LXX omitted the month in this reference. In Jer 52:4, the LXX has the 9th month instead of the 10th month. {2Ki 25:1,2 Jer 39:1,2 52:4}

  5. Ezekiel’s vision of Pharaoh was in the 10th year, 10th month and the 12th day of Jehoiachin’s captivity. The LXX has 12th year, 10th month, and the 1st day. {Eze 29:1}

    1. The 10th year of Zedekiah was the 18th year of Nebuchadnezzar. {Jer 32:1} Chapter 32 is chapter 39 in the LXX.

    2. In the 18th year of his reign, Nebuchadnezzar deported 832 Jews. This is omitted in the LXX. {Jer 52:29}

    3. Ezekiel’s vision of Egypt was in the 11th year, 1st month and the 7th day of Jehoiachin’s captivity. {Eze 30:20}

    4. Ezekiel’s vision of Egypt was in the 11th year, 3rd month and the 1st day of Jehoiachin’s captivity. {Eze 31:1}

    1. In the 11th year, 4th month and the 9th day of Zedekiah and the 19th year of Nebuchadnezzar, Jerusalem fell. The LXX omitted the reference to the 4th month in Jer. 52:6 and the 19th year in Jer. 52:12. {2Ki 25:3,8 Jer 39:2 52:5,6,12}

    2. In the 11th year, 5th month and the 7th day of Zedekiah and the 19th year of Nebuchadnezzar, Jerusalem was burned. {2Ki 25:8 Jer 52:5,12}

    3. This completed the 390 years of the iniquity of Israel from the start of the time of the divided kingdom in early 975 BC to the fifth month of 588 BC. This was 388 whole years and two part years. {Eze 4:5 1Ki 12:19}

    1. Ezekiel’s vision of Israel was in the 12th year, 12th month and the 1st day of Jehoiachin’s captivity. The LXX has the 10th month. {Eze 32:1}

    2. Ezekiel’s vision of Israel was in the 12th year, 12th month and the 15th day of Jehoiachin’s captivity. The 12th month was supplied from context. The LXX incorrectly had the 1st month. {Eze 32:1,17}

    3. Ezekiel was told of destruction of Jerusalem in the 12th year, 10th month and the 5th day of Jehoiachin’s captivity about 6 months after the city was burned. The LXX had the 10 year and 12th month, which was an obvious transposition error. {Eze 33:21} Modern scholars who have incorrectly reconstructed the chronology, assume this would have been 18 months after the fall of Jerusalem and hence cite this as proof that the Nisan to Nisan calendar was not used.

    390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 YDK

    585 584 583 582 581 580 579 578 577 576 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 15..16..17..18..19..20..21..22..23..24.. Jehoiachin’s

                                            Captivity

   .3...4...5...6...7...8...9..10..11..12.. Ezekiel’s Vision

   39..40.                                  Judah’s Apostasy

BB 22.23..24..25..26..27..28..29..30..31..3 Nebuchadnezzar

         a
    1. In the 23rd year of Nebuchadnezzar, Nebuzaradan deported 730 of the remaining Jews. The LXX omitted this verse. {Jer 52:30}

    2. This completed the 40 years of the iniquity of Judah. {Eze 4:6}

    400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 YDK

    575 574 573 572 571 570 569 568 567 566 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 25..26..27..28..29..30..31..32..33..34.. Jehoiachin’s

                                            Captivity

   13                                       Ezekiel’s Vision

BB 2..33..34..35..36...37..38..39..40..41.. Nebuchadnezzar

                           ...1...2...3...4 Nebuchadnezzar’s Insanity

    a       b              c
  1. Ezekiel’s vision of the temple was in the 25th year, 1st month and the 10th day of Jehoiachin’s captivity, in the 14th year after Jerusalem fell. The chart shows 13 full years and about 7 months from the fall of Jerusalem so this would be in the 14th year. The LXX correctly supplies the "1st month" which is not in the Hebrew text but is clearly implied. {Eze 40:1}
  2. Ezekiel’s vision about Egypt was in the 27th year, 1st month and the 1st day of Jehoiachin’s captivity {Eze 29:17}
  3. This time marked the beginning of Nebuchadnezzar’s insanity. This is a deduction based on history. Apparently he finished the conquest of Egypt in 571 BC. He had his dream as given in Daniel 4 in 570 BC. During that year he built up Babylon including the famous hanging gardens. After this he was put out of his kingdom after he bragged to himself about what he had done.
    410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 YDK

    565 564 563 562 561 560 559 558 557 556 BC

   bcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcda

SK 35..36..37...                            Jehoiachin’s

                                            Captivity

 BB 42..43..44...                           Nebuchadnezzar

   ...5...6...7                             Nebuchadnezzar’s

                                            Insanity

              ab
    1. The 18th Jubilee.

    2. Nebuchadnezzar was restored to his kingdom.

    1. Nebuchadnezzar died a few months after he was restored to his kingdom in the winter of this year. According to Eusebius Nebuchadnezzar reigned for 20 months as viceroy and 43 years as sole king. Just before his death, he predicted that Cyrus would capture Babylon. The date of 562 BC for his death is derived from Ptolemy’s king lists. {Thiele, p. 227.}

    2. Jehoiachin was freed in a Jubilee year in the 37th year, 12th month and 27th day of his captivity. {2Ki 25:27 Jer 52:31}

Problem 23:

  1. Jehoiachin was freed on the 27th day. {2Ki 25:27}

  2. Jehoiachin was freed on the 25th day. {Jer 52:31}

Resolution:

  1. The decree to free Jehoiachin was determined and ratified on the 25th and executed on the 27th day.

  2. There was a scribal error.

This does not alter the chronology.

7.0 Differences Between Hebrew and the LXX Texts

  1. In 20th (24th in the LXX) year of Jeroboam, Asa reigned for 41 years. {1Ki 15:9,10}


  2. Baasha reacted to the defection of his subjects to Asa and started to build Ramah in the 36th (38th in the LXX) year from the start of the divided kingdom {2Ch 15:9,16:1}


  3. In the 26th (omitted in the LXX) year of Asa, Elah reigned two years, part of one year and part of another. {1Ki 16:8}


  4. In the 27th (omitted by the LXX) year of Asa, Zimri murdered Elah, reigned 7 days and committed suicide to avoid being killed by Omri. {1Ki 16:10,15}


  5. In the 38th year of Asa, Ahab reigned for 22 years. {1Ki 16:29} (The LXX has 2nd year of Jehoshaphat instead of the 38th year of Asa.)


  6. In his 39th year, Asa became diseased in his feet until he died in his 41st (40th in the LXX) year. {1Ki 15:23,24 2Ch 16:12,13}


  7. In the 2nd year of Jehoram (SK), Jehoram (NK) started to reign. {2Ki 1:17} This was the 18th year of Jehoshaphat in the LXX and verse is 18 not 17.


  8. In the 12th year of Jehoram (NK), Ahaziah at 22 years of age, reigned for part of a year. {2Ki 8:25,26 2Ch 22:2} In {2Ch 22:2} his age was given as 42 and it was 20 in the LXX.


  9. Athaliah reigned over Judah for 6 years and was killed in her 7th year. (8th year {2Ch 23:1} and 7th year in {2Ki 11:4 2Ch 24:1} in the LXX.) {2Ki 11:3,4,16 2Ch 22:12 23:1,15}


  10. Jeremiah’s prophecy was in the 5th year of Jehoiakim. {Jer 36:9} In the LXX it was the 8th year in the 9th month.


  11. Nebuchadnezzar at the beginning of his 8th year just before the Jewish New Year in Nisan, captured Jehoiakim. At the end of his 7th year, 3023 Jews were deported. {2Ki 24:12 Jer 52:28} Jer 52:28 was omitted in the LXX.


  12. Ezekiel’s vision of Jerusalem, was in the 6th year, 6th month and the 5th day of Jehoiachin’s captivity. The LXX had 5th month. {Eze 8:1}


  13. Ezekiel’s vision of Israel was in the 7th year, 5th month and the 10th day of Jehoiachin’s captivity. The LXX omitted the month and had the 15th day. {Eze 20:1}


  14. In the 9th year, 10th month and the 10th day of Zedekiah’s reign, Nebuchadnezzar besieged Jerusalem for 3 years. The LXX omitted the month in Jer 39:1,2. In Jer 52:4, the LXX had 9th month instead of 10th month. {2Ki 25:1,2 Jer 39:1,2 52:4}


  15. In the 18th year of his reign, Nebuchadnezzar deported 832 Jews. This was omitted in the LXX. {Jer 52:29}


  16. Ezekiel’s vision of Pharaoh was in the 10th year, 10th month and the 12th day of Jehoiachin’s captivity, the LXX had the 12th year, 10th month, 1st day. {Eze 29:1}


  17. In the 11th year, 4th month and the 9th day of Zedekiah and the 19th year of Nebuchadnezzar, Jerusalem fell. The LXX omitted the reference to the 4th month in Jer. 52:6 and the 19th year in Jer. 52:12. {2Ki 25:3,8 Jer 39:2 52:5,6,12}


  18. Ezekiel’s vision of Israel was in the 12th year, 12th month and the 1st day of Jehoiachin’s captivity. The LXX had the 10th month. {Eze 32:1}


  19. Ezekiel’s vision of Israel was in the 12th year, 12th month and the 15th day of Jehoiachin’s captivity. The 12th month was supplied from the context. The LXX incorrectly had the 1st month. {Eze 32:1,17}


  20. Ezekiel told of the destruction of Jerusalem in the 12th year, 10th month and the 5th day of Jehoiachin’s captivity. The LXX had the 10th year and 12th month which is an obvious transposition error. {Eze 33:21}


  21. In the 23rd year of Nebuchadnezzar, Nebuzaradan deported 730 of the remaining Jews. The LXX omitted this verse. {Jer 52:30}


  22. Ezekiel’s vision of the temple was in the 25th year, 1st month and the 10th day of Jehoiachin’s captivity, in the 14th year after Jerusalem fell. The LXX correctly supplies "1st month" which was not in the Hebrew text but was clearly implied. {Eze 40:1}

Of the 22 differences, seven are critical. 1,3,4,5,7,8 and 9 would throw the chronology off if the LXX was used instead of the Hebrew text. Hence our admonition is justified that the chronology must be based on the Hebrew text.

8.0 Summary of the Viceroy Relationships

  1. In his 18th year, Jehoshaphat made Jehoram viceregent while he went off to war with Syria.


  2. In his 23rd year, Jehoshaphat made Jehoram viceroy and died two years later.


  3. In his 21st year, Ahab (NK) made Ahaziah (NK) viceroy and Ahab died the same year in a battle with Syria.


  4. In his 7th year, Jehoram made Ahaziah viceroy and died the next year of a disease of his bowels.


  5. In his 15th year, Jehoahaz (NK) made Jehoash viceroy and died two years later.


  6. In his 39th year, Joash made Amaziah viceroy and died two years later.


  7. In his 6th year, Jehoash (NK) made Jeroboam II (NK) viceroy before he went to fight with the Syrians. He won, much to his surprise, and lived for another 11 years.


  8. In his 52nd year, Uzziah made Jotham viceroy and died of leprosy a few months later.


  9. In his 15th year, Ahaz made Hezekiah viceroy and died the next year.


  10. According to Eusebius, Nebuchadnezzar was made viceroy while his father went off to war and was killed twenty months later.

In every case there is a good reason for these viceroy relationships. A king was virtually abdicating the throne when he appointed his son as a viceroy. Kings did not make such serious decisions on a mere whim. In cases 1, 3, 7 and 10 the king was going to war and wanted to ensure a smooth transition of power in case he did not return. In the other cases the viceroy relationship was toward the end of the king’s life and did not last for very long. The king was likely in failing health and needed help with the administration of the kingdom.

Almost all viceroy periods were quite short, usually one or two years. The exception was Jeroboam II whose period lasted over 11 years. His father Jehoash did not expect to defeat the Syrians even though Elisha said he would. He thought he would come back on his shield, not holding it!

9.0 Some Objections

Modern chronology for the divided kingdom appears to be quite different than the one developed by Ussher. In order to force fit the biblocal data with the preconceived ideas of Assyrian history, those of the Assyrian Academy must eliminate two interregnums from the biblicial data. The concept of interregnums is not new and was common in this period of history among foreign nations. Therefore, we should not be surprised, given the political turmoil in the Northern Kingdom, to find one or more interregnums during the death-throes of that kingdom. The Southern Kingdom was much more stable during this time and we should not expect to find interregnums there.

From history, we know of at least four interregnums in foreign countries.

  1. In 704 BC, after Arkeanos, there was no king in Babylon for two years. {15}

  2. In 688 BC, there was no king in Babylon for eight years. {15}

  3. In 687 BC, civil disorder increased in Egypt, because there was no king for two years. {16}

  4. In 637 BC, there was a one year interregnum in Babylon. {17}

All serious students of history know about these interregnums. We are not surprised that those advocating the use of the conjectured Assyrian Chronology to amend the Bible, conveniently forget about them, and recoil in horror at such a concept for they know that if the concept is allowed, it is fatal to their schemes of interpretation. Neither Dr. Thiele or Dr. McFall breathe a word about this and indeed it is one of the best kept secrets of the Assyrian Academy. Indeed Galil goes so far as to state in his basic assumptions (without proof) there were no interregnums in the biblical chronology! This begs the question—“How does he know?”

We shall discuss this and other the errors in the most popular modern chronology that was developed by Dr. Thiele and refined by Dr. McFall in another article.

10.0 Interesting Observations

There was no king in the Northern Kingdom on two separate occasions, one starting in 784 BC and the other starting in 740 or 739 BC.

Viceroy relationships are essential to the understanding of the king lists. These become apparent as you actually plot out the data in detail. In reading the Bible, you would not normally be aware of most of these relationships unless you did your homework.

Jehoshaphat and Ahab both had two sons. Both had sons by the same name, Ahaziah and Jehoram. All of them were made viceroys at one time or another. This period in the king list was the most confusing until Jehu simplified it in 884 BC by terminating the kings!

Some have claimed that a different dating method was used by the writer of Chronicles than the writer of Kings. We found no evidence of this. Except for the difference in the age when two kings started to reign, all the data is identical.

Some have claimed a different accession year scheme was used at different times for either of the kingdoms. That is the Nisan to Nisan rule was abandoned for considerable periods of time and they deliberately used a different accession month (i.e. month Tishri to Tishri). We found no evidence to justify this claim.

11.0 Conclusion

Ussher’s results, based on the Bible alone, violate just about every "absolute date" in archaeology. Amen. All this shows is that we may not know as much about history as God does. This provides an excellent incentive for Christians to reevaluate the findings of archaeology to find their mistakes. This has been done before by Christians. Let us do the same for the rest of archaeology’s so called "absolute dates." We will never forget what Gordon Franz, who was guiding a tour to Israel in 1998, said on the mound of Jericho.

“Absolute truth in archaeology lasts about twenty years.”

Maybe we should substitute "conjecture" for "truth!"

Archaeology is to history what evolution is to science. Evolutionists find a fossil and make up a story to go with it. Likewise, many archaeologists find a broken pot or a fragment of a scroll and spin a tale to explain it. If you are well respected in the field, your story becomes the gospel until something better comes along. This is not at all an exaggeration. The classic case was the time when Dr. Woods examined the dates for Jericho as determined by Kathleen Kenyon and found them too recent. She excavated an eight meter square and dated the fall of Jericho based on the type of pottery she DID NOT find! (We are sure this had nothing at all to do with her anti-biblical bias!) This farce rode on the coat tails of her reputation for decades until Dr. Woods exploded it. At the very best, archaeology can only confirm what the Bible says, never refute it. It may give us background information to help us understand the Bible better.

We have been able to recreate the background documentation to justify Ussher’s reconstruction of the king lists for the divided kingdom. We have been careful to state all the assumptions we used and state all the known problems that people have found that relate to this chronological period. We have solely relied on the Bible for our information. We do not claim that this reconstruction is unique. There may be other ways to do it. However, we have shown that there exists at least one way it can be done without doing violence to the scriptures. That is sufficient to overthrow a host of inaccurate reconstructions for this same time period which result in a much shorter time for this biblical period.

We are open to suggestions and amendments. However, we will only entertain corrections that are rooted in the Bible. Archaeological arguments that violate the scriptures carry no weight with us.

11.0 Bibliography

  1. The Authorized Version of the Bible, 1769, University Printing House (Her Majesty’s Printers), Cambridge.
  2. Edward Blaiklock (Editor), The New International Dictionary of Biblical Archaeology (IBDA), Zondervan, Michigan, 1984.
  3. John Gill, Gill’s Expositor, first published 1760, republished in 1995 on the Online Bible CD Rom.
  4. John W. Halley, Alleged Discrepancies of the Bible, Baker Book House, first published 1874, republished 1976.
  5. Henry Halley, Halley’s Bible Handbook, Revised edition 1965, Zondervan, Grand Rapids
  6. International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia (ISBE), 1929 Edition, Hendrickson Publishers, Massachusetts.
  7. Dr. Leslie McFall, A Translation Guide to the Chronological Data in Kings and Chronicles, Bibliotheca Sacra, January-March Issue, 1991, Volume 148, Number 589.
  8. The Septuagint Version of the Old Testament, Zondervan, 8th Printing, 1978.
  9. Smith’s Bible Dictionary, (American Edition) 1869, Riverside Press, Cambridge. This is the 4 volume set, not the one volume abridged version.
  10. Tadmor, The Inscriptions of Tiglath-Pileser III King of Assyria, The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem, 1994.
  11. Dr. Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, University of Chicago Press, 3rd printing, 1983.
  12. Ussher, Annals of the World, first published 1654, revised edition, due out late 2002 AD.
  13. Virtual Jerusalem, Internet Website: http://www.virtual.co.il/torah/webshas/main.htm, Jerusalem. This has the whole Talmud and Mishnah in English. There are special subsections at that site that deal with Jewish time calculations.
  14. Dorothy M. Bone, Chronology of the Hebrew Divided Kingdom, 1997, Avon Books, London, England.
  15. Dr. Thiele, Appendix C - Conaon of Ptolemy, p. 227
  16. Diodorus Siciculus, Book 1, Chapter 66, page 227, Loeb Classical Library, 1933
  17. Gershon Galil, The Chronology of the Kings of Israel and Judah, p. 120., E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1996

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