The purpose of this book is to provide students and teachers in biology classrooms with biblical and scientific insight into the true nature of evolution as it is taught in public schools. Answers in Genesis has long suggested that students are being indoctrinated with evolutionary ideas in the public schools—this reference book provides evidence to support that claim.
After reviewing four of the most commonly used high-school biology textbooks, we found an astounding number of references to evolution. Virtually every chapter in these books contains implied or explicit references to evolutionary ideas.
This book is intended to be a reference that students can take into the classroom. Each chapter opens with a summary of the differences between the evolutionary and creationist interpretations of the chapter topic. The summary is followed by a table of the evolutionary concepts presented in the textbooks and their respective page numbers. A more thorough discussion of the topic follows the table of references. Each concept is linked to one or more articles that present a creationist interpretation of the evidence. The articles have been summarized for your convenience. Students are encouraged to read the full articles, using the provided URLs, before using the information to challenge the textbook’s claims. The articles are referenced by two numbers separated by a colon. For example, article 2:5 is found in Chapter 2 and is the fifth article in the list. Complete citations for the articles are found in an index at the back of the book.
The next section contains questions that students can ask teachers concerning the ideas presented in class. Students are encouraged to ask the questions in a Christ-like manner (see the section below on Respectful Questioning). These questions are general in nature and can be modified to reflect the specific examples used in class. Following the questions is a list of books and other resources.
The indexes and tables throughout the book can be used by anyone, regardless of whether you use the textbooks.
The four textbooks cited in this book give different dates and hypotheses. When the dates disagree, the oldest date is generally given. In some cases, the hypotheses contradict one another. The statements used in the tables are intended to be generalizations, not extensive descriptions. The use of dates of millions of years and the use of common evolutionary terms is for the sake of discussion and in no way should be taken to mean that we agree with their validity.
Using the References and Companion Website
We have made every attempt to make the reference materials accessible to everyone. Whenever possible, the reference articles and chapters are available on the internet. This book also features a companion website—www.evolutionexposed.com—that can be used to link to the reference materials. The website allows you to access the most current information and will provide updates that will equip you in defending your faith. You can also use the website to access other helpful products, such as DVDs, witnessing tracts, and books.
We have chosen to use a variety of sources for the references in this book. When information from groups other than Answers in Genesis is used, articles have been selectively chosen to represent views consistent with AiG’s mission and statement of faith. The websites themselves may contain material that is not necessarily endorsed by AiG.
Many organizations around the world are dedicated to upholding biblical authority and promoting that authority by addressing the creation/evolution debate. A wide variety of materials and information are available through this network of organizations. There very well may be a creation group in your local area or state. Becoming a member of one of these groups is a great way to stay connected with current issues and become equipped to engage in the culture war and advance the gospel.
Respectful Questioning & Sharing with Others
Asking questions is a proper way to challenge the ideas of teachers or textbooks, but the questions should be asked respectfully. Paul warns us in Ephesians 4:14–15:
That we should no longer be children, tossed to and fro and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the trickery of men, in the cunning craftiness of deceitful plotting, but, speaking the truth in love, may grow up in all things into Him who is the head—Christ.
Although evolutionary ideas are contrary to the Bible, we should speak the truth in love and show that the biblical interpretation offers a more consistent view of the history of the universe. The Bible was written by the One who created the universe and was there to see everything that happened. No one was there to observe the chemicals forming the first cell or watch as fish slowly developed legs and turned into amphibians over millions of years. Evolutionists may counter that no one was present to observe the creation of the earth—but God was there and He has recorded the highlights of those events for us in the Bible.
It is important to remember that we are ambassadors of Christ, as we are told in 2 Corinthians 5:20:
Now then, we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God were pleading through us: we implore you on Christ’s behalf, be reconciled to God.
As an ambassador in your school, you should act in a manner that reflects Christ. Others will be judging Christ based on the way that you present yourself.
When asking questions, wait for an appropriate opportunity and ask the question with a respectful tone. It would be a good idea to research the question in advance. If you know what the teacher will be discussing or if something comes up in a homework assignment, research the concept and develop an explanation that you could share with the class if the opportunity arises. It is also helpful to anticipate the teacher’s answer (using the information from the articles as a guide). Play out the scenario in your mind or with a friend, and try to think of follow-up questions. Have the resource information available to share with anyone who is interested.
If the teacher wants to do further research before giving a response, you can offer a resource. If the teacher responds by saying scientists don’t have the answer yet, you may want to question the validity of any other idea based on those claims. For example, “If we don’t know the conditions on the early earth, how can we be sure about how cells first formed?”
Do not be surprised if the teacher responds, “That is a religious idea, and it can’t be used in science.” Secular science allows only natural explanations. Just because science does not allow supernatural explanations doesn’t mean that supernatural explanations are not correct. This is especially true in respect to the origin of life and the historical processes that produced the world we see today. Remember, naturalistic science starts with the assumption that the Bible is not true, and creation science starts with the assumption that the Bible is true. Starting with different assumptions leads to different conclusions in almost every case. Ultimately, it takes just as much faith—if not more—to believe that only matter and natural laws can explain the universe.
The fact that the scientific community denies the supernatural does not mean that all scientists are atheists—many claim to be Christians or have other religious beliefs. Keeping that in mind, focus on ideas, not individuals. These people are not unintelligent; they simply arrive at different conclusions by using different assumptions.
If you have Christian allies in your class, it may be helpful to take turns asking questions. Also consider studying the issues together and praying for one another.
The questions provided at the end of each chapter are intended to be a starting point. Turn general questions into specific questions by incorporating examples or specific information presented by your teacher. Adapt questions to the unique situations you encounter in your classroom.
It may be difficult to share your ideas and challenge the ideas of scientists, but remember that you are not alone—God is always with you. Say a prayer and ask for courage to stand up for the truth. There is no guarantee that you will not be ridiculed, although no teacher should ridicule a student for thinking a certain way. 1 Peter 3:13–14 promises:
And who is he who will harm you if you become followers of what is good? But even if you should suffer for righteousness’ sake, you are blessed. “And do not be afraid of their threats, nor be troubled.”
Peter continues with a challenge in verses 15–16:
But sanctify the Lord God in your hearts, and always be ready to give a defense to everyone who asks you a reason for the hope that is in you, with meekness and fear; having a good conscience, that when they defame you as evildoers, those who revile your good conduct in Christ may be ashamed.
This passage tells us that we need to set apart Christ in our hearts, study to be prepared to give an answer, and speak the truth with gentleness and respect. We are in a battle, and the stakes are high. Even if a classmate or teacher does not come to Christ, you may be planting seeds that will sprout some day.
It should encourage you to know that a wealth of information is available from many sources to help you defend your faith. Below is a list of books that contain the type of information that will be helpful. These books include secular and creation scientists who challenge the idea of Darwinian evolution from both scientific and religious perspectives. There is also a huge collection of articles, some of which are summarized in the following chapters, available at www.answersingenesis.org. New articles are posted daily; so keep checking the website for the most current information regarding the creation/ evolution controversy. Magazines and newsletters are another source of current information available from AiG. Many DVDs and witnessing tracts are available for you to share. The most effective changes start at the grassroots level, and you can be a powerful tool within the public school system to defend the authority of the Bible from the very first verse.
It is important that students realize they have more rights in the classroom than they might think. Whenever assignments are given, the student has the right to express his thoughts and beliefs through those assignments. For example, a report on a famous scientist might include how that scientist’s faith in God or belief in the Bible influenced his career or research. Religious topics may be used whenever students are allowed to determine the content of the essay, homework, artwork, and so on. For more information on student rights in public schools visit www.answersingenesis.org/go/student-rights.
When answering questions from the textbook or teacher, students are often expected to provide answers that assume evolutionary ideas are true. In such cases, the student may want to preface the question with a disclaimer. The disclaimer might say, “According to the textbook …” or “As the idea was presented in class … .” This will communicate to the teacher that the student has learned the concepts presented in the class but that she does not necessarily agree with them. When appropriate, the student may also consider adding her personal beliefs or the biblical interpretation after she has answered the question from an evolutionary perspective. This approach will allow her to meet the academic requirements of the classroom setting and also express her belief that the interpretation presented by the textbook or curriculum is false.
To develop this resource, four of the most popular high-school biology textbooks were chosen. The publisher and page number are provided for photos, figures, or tables (e.g., Glencoe 327). The full citations for the textbooks are listed below.
Biggs, A. et al., Biology: The Dynamics of Life (Florida Edition), Glencoe/McGraw Hill, New York, 2006.
This text will be referred to as Glencoe throughout this book.
Campbell, N., B. Williamson, and R. Heyden, Biology: Exploring Life (Florida Teacher’s Edition), Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 2006.
This text will be referred to as PH-Campbell throughout this book.
Johnson, G. and P. Raven, Biology (Teacher’s Edition), Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Austin, Texas, 2006.
This text will be referred to as Holt throughout this book.
Miller, Kenneth R. and J. Levine, Biology, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007.
This text will be referred to as PH-Miller throughout this book.
Tools for Digging Deeper
The New Answers Book by Ham et al., Master Books, 2006.
This book addresses 27 of the most common questions that creationists are asked and provides answers from a biblical perspective.
The Biblical Basis for Modern Science by Henry Morris (semitechnical), Master Books, 2002.
A comprehensive resource for the serious student of creation. Gives in-depth information on the creation/evolution issue in biology, geology, astronomy, the history of the nations, etc.
The Biotic Message by Walter ReMine (technical), Saint Paul Science, 1993.
This book provides an exhaustive and technical treatment of information in biological systems.
Body by Design by Alan Gillen, Master Books, 2001.
Body by Design defines the basic anatomy and physiology in each of 11 body systems from a creationist viewpoint. Every chapter examines different organs and structures giving evidence for design. Students are challenged to think through the evidence—the facts as we know them today—and to consider the statistical likelihood of molecules-to-man evolution. The end result is an effective, interwoven presentation of anatomy, physiology, and creation.
Bones of Contention by Marvin Lubenow (semi-technical), Baker Books, 2004.
Professor Lubenow examines the fossil evidence for human evolution and exposes the philosophical and scientific untruths. Each of the alleged ancestors is examined and shown to be an evolutionary farce. The myth of human evolution is thoroughly dismantled in this book.
Buried Alive by Jack Cuozzo, Master Books, 1998.
Discover the startling truth about Neandertal Man from the original research of Jack Cuozzo.
Creation: Facts of Life by Gary Parker, Master Books, 2006.
In Creation: Facts of Life, Dr. Parker respectfully describes the evidence he once used to preach evolution, but then he explains how the rest of the evidence points away from evolution and toward a perfect world created by God, ruined by man, restored to new life in Christ. This classic has been updated and expanded into a powerful and layman-friendly format, filled with many of the latest findings in science.
Creation Scientists Answer Their Critics by Duane Gish, Institute for Creation Research, 1993.
Dr. Gish is the world’s foremost debater on creation/ evolution and has debated many famous evolutionists. In this extensive work, Gish answers his critics, showing that he can substantiate all the facts given during his debates and, more powerfully, refutes the evolutionist position.
Darwin on Trial by Phillip Johnson, InterVarsity Press, 1993.
Professor Johnson uses his incisive legal mind to demonstrate that Darwinian evolution is based not on fact, but on faith. Johnson examines the evidence used to support evolution and its naturalistic philosophy, and he declares a mistrial.
Darwin’s Black Box by Michael Behe (semi-technical), Free Press, 1996.
Biochemistry professor Michael Behe uses the concept of irreducible complexity to demonstrate how Darwinian evolution fails to provide a mechanism for building systems that work as intact units. Behe does not endorse a young earth, but his critique of evolutionary theory from within the scientific establishment demonstrates the shaky ground that the philosophy is based on.
Darwin’s Enigma by Luther Sutherland (technical), Master Books, 1998.
This powerful argument for intelligent design contains some of the most compelling data available by focusing on the very real shortcomings of the fossil record in supporting evolution. The author shows that there are truly more problems than solutions.
Evolution: A Theory in Crisis by Michael Denton, Adler & Adler, 1986.
This book by a noncreationist is hard-hitting, factual, and objective. It does not argue in favor of creation, but is a clear, balanced, responsible, and scientifically accurate account of the ever-growing crisis in evolutionary circles.
Evolution: The Fossils Still Say No by Duane Gish, Master Books, 1995.
The most compelling critique available anywhere of the supposedly key argument for evolution: the fossil record. Dr. Gish documents, from the writings of evolutionists, the complete absence of true evolutionary transitional forms.
The Fossil Book by Gary Parker, Master Books, 2006.
This book uncovers the exciting story of fossils—how they formed, where they are found, and how to build your own collection—all from a creationist’s perspective. Fascinating, informative, and filled with color photos and illustrations.
Frozen in Time by Michael Oard, Master Books, 2004.
Meteorologist Michael Oard gives plausible explanations of the seemingly unsolvable mysteries about the Ice Age and the woolly mammoths. Many other related topics are explained, including super floods, ice cores, man in the Ice Age, and the number of ice ages.
Genetic Entropy and the Mystery of the Genome by John Sanford (semi-technical), Ivan Press, 2005.
Geneticist Dr. John Sanford examines the validity of evolution’s primary axiom—that man is merely the result of random mutations plus natural selection. This revolutionary book details compelling new genetic evidence that the human genome is deteriorating and has always been deteriorating due to accumulations of mutations. The more scientists discover about the human genome, the less plausible Darwinism is. Sanford systematically lays out the scientific case against mutations resulting in the origin of species.
The Geology Book by John Morris, Master Books, 2000.
Dr. Morris explains the formation and study of rocks in a clear, understandable way. The layers of rock were supposedly laid down over the billions of years of earth’s history. Morris demonstrates that the rocks tell the story of creation and the catastrophe of a global Flood only a few thousand years ago.
If Animals Could Talk by Werner Gitt, Master Books, 2006.
Told from each animal’s perspective, this fascinating description of incredible design features a wide range of animals, which all logically point to a loving Creator. A great tool for witnessing, writing projects, or debates.
In Six Days by John Ashton (semi-technical), Master Books, 2001.
This collection of essays from 50 respected scientists from many scientific fields demonstrates the false assumption that a commitment to evolution and naturalism is necessary to practice science. Each of these active scientists shares how faith in a literal interpretation of Scripture and scientific pursuits reinforce one another.
In the Beginning Was Information by Werner Gitt (semi-technical), Master Books, 2006.
This book presents what may well be the most devastating scientific argument against the idea that life could form by natural processes. The science of information is explained in detail, with many striking examples to clarify fundamental questions, such as: What are the laws of information? How did language develop? Is artificial intelligence possible?
The Lie: Evolution by Ken Ham, Master Books, 1998.
Ken Ham is best known for his message on the relevance of creation and the importance of Genesis. Humorous and easy-to-read, this book powerfully equips Christians to defend the book of Genesis and opens eyes to the harmful effects of evolution on today’s society.
Not by Chance by Lee Spetner (technical), Judaica Press, 1997.
Dr. Spetner’s book aims a death-blow at the heart of the whole neo-Darwinian story. The crucial battleground in the war over origins has always been the origin of information. Spetner is a noncreationist who shows that time and chance cannot produce new (more) genetic information. This book is a must for everyone who desires to defend the Bible in this increasingly “educated” society.
On the Seventh Day by John Ashton (semi-technical), Master Books, 2002.
This sequel to In Six Days presents essays by over 40 scientists with PhDs who explore the links between science and faith, and what that means not only to individuals but also to the entire planet.
War of the Worldviews by Ham, Hodge, Kerby, Lisle, McKeever, Menton, Mortenson, Purdom, and Riddle, New Leaf Press, 2006.
In this powerful book, readers are given answers to the arguments that the culture uses to drive a wedge between God and humanity. Topics that are relevant to today’s culture war are discussed, and the reader is provided with a biblical perspective on issues from intelligent design to the origin of life.