Absolute dating uses radiometric dating to test a specimen in an attempt to estimate its age.
Adaptation is a physical trait or behavior due to inherited characteristics that gives an organism the ability to survive in a given environment.
The anthropic principle states that life in our universe requires physical constants, laws, and properties that fall within certain narrow ranges; the universe appears designed to support life.
Anthropology is the systematic study of the characteristics of humans through history.
Archaebacteria is the kingdom of prokaryotic cells, excluding eubacteria (considered as a separate domain in certain classification schemes), which is alleged to be ancestral to eubacteria by some evolutionists.
The Archaeopteryx is an extinct species of perching bird (known from fossils) with teeth, wing claws, and a bony tail.
The Archaeoraptor is a fraudulent fossil from China that combined the body of a bird with the tail of a dinosaur.
An artifact is an item or its remains produced in the past by humans, generally recovered through archaeological exploration.
Atheism is the belief that God, or any supreme intelligence, does not exist.
Australopithecus is a genus of extinct apes known from fossils found in Africa, including the famous “Lucy.”
Bacteria are a group of unicellular organisms that lack a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, including eubacteria and archaebacteria.
The Bible is the collection of 66 books that is the inspired Word of God, used as the authoritative source for determining truth.
Biblical creation is the supernatural events, occurring over six approximately 24-hour days, described in Genesis 1 and 2, by which God caused the formation of the heaven and earth and everything in them.
biblical creation model
The biblical creation model is a scientific model based on the biblical account of three key events—creation, the curse of nature brought about by Adam’s sin, and the global catastrophe of Noah’s Flood.
big bang model
The big bang model is the cosmological model suggesting the universe began as a single point which expanded to produce the known universe.
Biology is the systematic study of the characteristics and interactions of living things.
A beneficial mutation is a mutation which confers a survival advantage to an organism under certain environmental conditions, usually a result of the loss of genetic information (see mutation).
catastrophic model of plate tectonics
The catastrophic model of plate tectonics is based on rapid movement of the plates associated with Noah’s Flood.
Catastrophism is the doctrine that changes in the geologic record are a result of physical processes operating at rates that are dramatically higher than are observed today.
Chemistry is the systematic study of the properties and interaction of matter.
A comet is a body of ice and dirt that orbits the sun as it constantly loses mass.
uniformitarian model of plate tectonics
The uniformitarian model of plate tectonics or continental drift is based on the gradual movement of the plates over hundreds of millions of years.
Cosmic microwave background (CMB) is an invisible source of electromagnetic radiation (microwaves) which seems to be coming from all directions in space; big bang supporters interpret the CMB as radiation left over from the big bang.
A cosmogony is a belief about the origin of the universe.
Cosmology is the systematic study of the structure of the universe, including its origin.
Created kinds or baramins are the original organisms (and their descendants) created supernaturally by God as described in Genesis 1; these organisms reproduce only their own kind within the limits of preprogrammed information, but with great variation.
Since the original creation, organisms of one kind cannot interbreed with a different kind, but individuals within a kind may have lost the ability (information) to interbreed due to the effects of the Curse.
The Cro-Magnon were an extinct people group of Europe and Eastern Asia.
Darwinism is a belief that all organisms have a single common ancestor that has produced all living organisms through the process of natural selection; popularized by Charles Darwin in On the Origin of Species.
The day-age theory is a compromise belief that the days of Genesis 1 are actually vast ages of different lengths, based on secular dating methods.
Deism is a belief in a Creator God that denies His intervention in the history of the universe since its creation.
A deletion mutation is the removal of one or more nucleotide pairs in the DNA sequence.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the basic molecule of hereditary information which serves as a code for the production of proteins and is common to all living organisms.
Duplication mutations are the large segments of DNA that have been copied and inserted into a new position in the DNA sequence, possibly on different chromosomes.
The endosymbiont hypothesis is the suggestion that mitochondria, chloroplasts, and other organelles originated as bacteria that were ingested and became a part of eukaryotic cells over evolutionary time.
In thermodynamics, entropy is the measure of the tendency of closed systems to increase in disorder.
The theory of evolution states that all life on earth has come about through descent with modification from a single common ancestor (a hypothetical, primitive single-celled organism).
Extrapolation is inferring information outside of the range of the actual data based on trends.
Faith is belief in things that cannot be directly known or observed.
Noah’s Flood was the supernatural event described in Genesis 6–10 that covered the entire earth with water, killing all land-dwelling, airbreathing animals except those aboard the Ark built by Noah.
A fossil is the preserved remains or traces of once-living organisms.
Fossilization is the process of preserving the remains or traces of an organism, generally by some form of petrification.
A frameshift mutation in an addition or deletion of one or more nucleotide pairs in the coding region of a gene causing the triplet codons to be read in the wrong frame.
A gene is a segment of DNA that codes for the production of polypeptides.
The Gene Pool is the collection of varying alleles within a population of organisms.
Genetics is the study of characteristics inherited by the transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.
A genome is the complete set of genetic material (DNA) of any cell in an organism.
The geocentric model uses the earth as a central frame of reference.
The geologic column is the layers of rock that compose the crust of the earth.
A glacier is a mass of ice formed from compacted snow which is thick enough to flow.
Secular humanism is a belief in mankind as the measure of all things, based on relative truth and morality and rejecting any supernatural authority.
The Ice Age is the period of glaciation following Noah’s Flood during which a significant portion of the earth had a cold climate.
Included fossils are organisms that are encased in a substance leaving the specimen virtually intact, as in amber.
Information is an encoded, symbolically represented message conveying expected action and intended purpose.
Inflation is a variation of the big bang theory in which the universe experiences an accelerated phase of expansion shortly after the big bang.
An insertion mutation is an addition of one or more nucleotide pairs in the DNA sequence.
Interpolation is inferring information within the range of the actual data based on trends.
An inversion mutation is an a section of DNA that has been reversed within the chromosome.
Java man is the first fossil specimen of Homo erectus.
Kennewick man is the human remains found in Washington State in 1996.
Biological life is anything that contains genetic information, can reproduce offspring that resemble itself, grows and develops, controls cellular organization and conditions including metabolism and homeostasis, and responds to its environment.
The Bible defines life in a different sense, using the Hebrew phrase nephesh chayyah, indicating organisms with a life spirit. Plants are not described as having nephesh chayyah.
Living fossils are living organisms that are virtually identical to fossil organisms; often thought to have been extinct and then discovered.
Logic is the systematic application of principles of reasoning to arrive at a conclusion.
Lucy is a 40% complete fossil specimen of Australopithecus afarensis discovered in Ethiopia in 1974 by Donald Johanson.
Macroevolution is a term used by evolutionists to describe the alleged, unobservable change of one kind of organism to another kind by natural selection acting on the accumulation of mutations over vast periods of time.
A mammal is any organism that has fur and nurses young from mammary glands.
Materialism is a belief claiming that physical matter is the only or fundamental reality and that all organisms, processes, and phenomena can be explained as manifestations or interactions of matter.
Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have been altered in texture or composition by heat, pressure, or chemical activity after they initially formed.
Microevolution is a term used by evolutionists to describe relatively small changes in genetic variation that can be observed in populations.
Mineralization is the replacement of material from an object, usually organic, with minerals that harden.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a small circular loop of DNA found in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells.
Mitochondrial Eve is the most recent common ancestor of humans whose lineage can be traced backward through female ancestors, alleged support for the out-of-Africa hypothesis of human evolution.
Models are physical, mental, or mathematical representations that can be used to explain observed phenomena and make specific, useful predictions.
mold and cast fossil
A mold and cast fossil is a type of replacement fossil which includes the concave or convex impression of an organism, typical of shells and leaves.
Mungo man is the fossil human remains from Australia dated by evolutionists to 40,000 years or more.
A mutation is any change in the sequence of DNA base pairs in the genome of an organism.
Natural selection is the process by which individuals possessing a set of traits that confer a survival advantage in a given environment tend to leave more offspring on average that survive to reproduce in the next generation.
Naturalism is a belief denying that an event or object has a supernatural significance; specifically, the doctrine that scientific laws are adequate to account for all phenomena.
Neanderthal is an extinct human people group with relatively thick bones and a distinct culture; disease and nutritional deficiency may be responsible for some of the bone characteristics.
A nebula is an interstellar cloud of gas and dust.
The Nebular Hypothesis is the belief that the solar system formed from a spinning, collapsing nebula; the sun formed at the center with the planets forming at various distances.
Neo-Darwinism is an extension of Darwinism, which includes modern genetic concepts to explain the origin of all life on earth from a single common ancestor.
A neutral mutation is any mutation that does not effect the function of an organism.
The Oort cloud is a hypothetical cloud if icy masses that orbits the sun at a great distance and is the alleged source of long period comets.
Operational or observational science is a systematic approach to understanding that uses observable, testable, repeatable, and falsifiable experimentation to understand how nature commonly behaves.
An operational theory is an explanation of a set of facts based on a broad set of repeatable and testable observations that is generally accepted within a group of scientists.
An organism is any cell or group of cells that exhibits the properties of life (living things) (see life).
Paleontology is the systematic study of the history of life on the earth based on the fossil record.
Paleomagnetism is the record of magnetic field strength and direction recorded in basalts.
Speciation is the process of change in a population that produces distinct populations which rarely naturally interbreed due to geographic isolation or other factors.
A species is a group of organisms within a genus that naturally reproduce and have fertile offspring.
Spontaneous generation is the false belief that life can arise from nonliving matter.
Strata are layers of rock deposited by geologic events.
A trace, track, or micro fossil is evidence of the activity of an organism, including tracks, burrows, root traces.
Transitions or transitional forms are species that exhibit traits that may be interpreted as intermediate between two kinds of organisms in an evolutionary framework (e.g., an organism with a fish body and amphibian legs).
A translocation mutation is the movement of a section of a chromosome from one position to another, generally between different chromosomes.
Uniformitarianism is the doctrine that present-day processes acting at similar rates as observed today account for the change evident in the geologic record.
A vestigial organ is any organ that has a demonstrated reduction and/or loss of function.
Vestigial organs include eyes in blind cave-fish but not organs that are assumed to have had a different function in an unknown ancestor.
A virus is a nonliving collection of proteins and genetic material that can only reproduce inside of a living cell.
Y-chromosome Adam is the most recent common ancestor whose lineage can be traced backwards through male ancestors.